Facial expression of children receiving immunizations: a principal components analysis of the child facial coding system.

@article{Breau2001FacialEO,
  title={Facial expression of children receiving immunizations: a principal components analysis of the child facial coding system.},
  author={Lynn Marie. Breau and Patrick J. McGrath and Kenneth D. Craig and Darcy A. Santor and Kathleen Cassidy and Graham J Reid},
  journal={The Clinical journal of pain},
  year={2001},
  volume={17 2},
  pages={
          178-86
        }
}
OBJECTIVE To identify the structure of facial reaction to procedural pain and to determine the subset of facial actions that best describe the response. DESIGN Observational. SETTING Five rural and five urban physicians' offices. PATIENTS One hundred twenty-three children aged 4 to 5 years undergoing routine diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and polio immunization. OUTCOME MEASURES The Child Facial Coding System, comprising 13 discrete facial actions, was used to code each second of five… CONTINUE READING
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