Facial expression: An under-utilised tool for the assessment of welfare in mammals.

@article{Descovich2017FacialEA,
  title={Facial expression: An under-utilised tool for the assessment of welfare in mammals.},
  author={Kris Descovich and Jennifer Wathan and Matthew C. Leach and Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith and Paul A. Flecknell and David A. H. Farningham and Sarah-Jane Vick},
  journal={ALTEX},
  year={2017},
  volume={34 3},
  pages={
          409-429
        }
}
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals depends on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioral measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalization) are frequently used because they are immediate… 
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