Salivary glands abnormalities in oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum
Facial asymmetries in oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) patients might require surgical corrections that are mostly based on qualitative approach and surgeon’s experience. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative 3D CT imaging-based procedure suitable for maxillo-facial surgery planning in OAVS patients. Thirteen OAVS patients (mean age 3.5 ± 4.0 years; range 0.2–14.2, 6 females) and 13 controls (mean age 7.1 ± 5.3 years; range 0.6–15.7, 5 females) who underwent head CT examination were retrospectively enrolled. Eight bilateral anatomical facial landmarks were defined on 3D CT images (porion, orbitale, most anterior point of frontozygomatic suture, most superior point of temporozygomatic suture, most posterior-lateral point of the maxilla, gonion, condylion, mental foramen) and distance from orthogonal planes (in millimeters) was used to evaluate the asymmetry on each axis and to calculate a global asymmetry index of each anatomical landmark. Mean asymmetry values and relative confidence intervals were obtained from the control group. OAVS patients showed 2.5 ± 1.8 landmarks above the confidence interval while considering the global asymmetry values; 12 patients (92 %) showed at least one pathologically asymmetric landmark. Considering each axis, the mean number of pathologically asymmetric landmarks increased to 5.5 ± 2.6 (p = 0.002) and all patients presented at least one significant landmark asymmetry. Modern CT-based 3D reconstructions allow accurate assessment of facial bone asymmetries in patients affected by OAVS. The evaluation as a global score and in different orthogonal axes provides precise quantitative data suitable for maxillo-facial surgical planning. CT-based 3D reconstruction might allow a quantitative approach for planning and following-up maxillo-facial surgery in OAVS patients.