Facial Expressions of Emotion: New Findings, New Questions

@article{Ekman1992FacialEO,
  title={Facial Expressions of Emotion: New Findings, New Questions},
  author={Paul Ekman},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={1992},
  volume={3},
  pages={34 - 38}
}
  • P. Ekman
  • Published 1992
  • Psychology
  • Psychological Science
The evidence on universals in facial expression of emotion, renewed controversy about that evidence, and new findings on cultural differences are reviewed. New findings on the capability for voluntarily made facial expressions to generate changes in both autonomic and central nervous system activity are discussed, and possible mechanisms by which this could occur are outlined. Finally, new work which has identified how to distinguish the smile of enjoyment from other types of smiling is… Expand
Facial expression and emotion.
  • P. Ekman
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • The American psychologist
  • 1993
Cross-cultural research on facial expression and the developments of methods to measure facial expression are briefly summarized. What has been learned about emotion from this work on the face isExpand
Facial expression and emotion.
Cross-cultural research on facial expression and the developments of methods to measure facial expression are briefly summarized. What has been learned about emotion from this work on the face isExpand
Understanding the Mechanisms Underlying the Production of Facial Expression of Emotion: A Componential Perspective
We highlight the need to focus on the underlying determinants and production mechanisms to fully understand the nature of facial expression of emotion and to settle the theoretical debate about theExpand
5. The meaning of expression: views from art and other sources
Contemporary views on facial expression take for granted that there are some basic emotions that are manifested by a few typical facial expressions. During the last twenty years psychologists haveExpand
The Meaning of Expression : Views from Art and Other Sources
Contemporary views on facial expression take for granted that there are some basic emotions that are manifested by a few typical facial expressions. During the last twenty years psychologists haveExpand
Subtly Different Positive Emotions Can Be Distinguished by Their Facial Expressions
Positive emotions are crucial to social relationships and social interaction. Although smiling is a frequently studied facial action, investigations of positive emotional expressions areExpand
The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults
TLDR
The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions and reports validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. Expand
Social Implications of Hyperfunctional Facial Lines
  • J. Finn, S. Cox, M. Earl
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • 2003
TLDR
Treatment of hyperfunctional facial lines is beneficial for patients who believe that their faces are not communicating their emotions properly, who want to delay the outward appearance of aging, or who simply want to look their best. Expand
Should we call it expression or communication
Abstract Two issues are addressed. First is the matter of just what type of information can be derived from observing a facial expression of emotion. Seven different emotion domains are described.Expand
Psychopathic traits in adolescents and recognition of emotion in facial expressions
Recent studies have investigated the ability of adult psychopaths and children with psychopathy traits to identify specific facial expressions of emotion. Conclusive results have not yet been foundExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 104 REFERENCES
The symmetry of emotional and deliberate facial actions.
TLDR
Asymmetries of the smiling facial movement were more frequent in deliberate imitations than spontaneous emotional expressions, and these findings were obtained for the actions involved in negative emotions, but a small data base made these results tentative. Expand
Emotion-Specific Effects of Facial Expressions and Postures on Emotional Experience
A total of 74 Ss were induced to adopt expressions of fear, anger, disgust, and sadness in Experiment 1. Each expression significantly increased feelings of its particular emotion compared with atExpand
Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion.
TLDR
Evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgement of facial expression is presented, with agreement very high across cultures about which emotion was the most intense and about the relative intensity among expressions of the same emotion. Expand
Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that theExpand
Emotion and facial efference: a theory reclaimed.
TLDR
The theory of emotional expression, developed by Israel Waynbaum, hypothesizes the subjective experience of emotions as following facial expression rather than preceding it, and answers Darwin's question of why different muscles contract or relax in different emotions better than Darwin's own theory. Expand
The role of facial response in the experience of emotion.
Facial expression and emotional stimuli were varied orthogonally in a 3 x 4 factorial design in order to test whether facial expression is necessary or sufficient to influence emotional experience.Expand
The Duchenne smile: emotional expression and brain physiology. II.
TLDR
The Duchenne smile was related to enjoyment in terms of occurring more often during the pleasant than the unpleasant films, in measures of cerebral asymmetry, and in relation to subjective reports of positive emotions, and other smiling was not. Expand
American-Japanese cultural differences in intensity ratings of facial expressions of emotion
Findings from a recent study by Ekmanet al. (1987) provided evidence for cultural disagreement about the intensity ratings of universal facial expressions of emotion. We conducted a study thatExpand
Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.
TLDR
Results indicated that voluntary facial activity produced significant levels of subjective experience of the associated emotion, and that autonomic distinctions among emotions were found both between negative and positive emotions and among negative emotions. Expand
Differentiating emotion elicited and deliberate emotional facial expressions
Recent research suggests the potential importance of dynamic aspects (e.g. speed of onset and ofset and degree of irregularity) of facial movement for the encoding of spontaneous versus deliberateExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...