Facial Action Coding System

@inproceedings{Prince2015FacialAC,
  title={Facial Action Coding System},
  author={Emily B. Prince and Katherine B. Martin and Daniel S. Messinger},
  year={2015}
}
The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is a widely used protocol for recognizing and labelling facial expression by describing the movement of muscles of the face. FACS is used to objectively measure the frequency and intensity of facial expressions without assigning any emotional meaning to those muscle movements. Instead FACS breaks down facial expressions into their smallest discriminable movements called Action Units. Each Action Unit creates a distinct change in facial appearance, such as… 
Spatial and temporal analysis of facial actions
TLDR
This thesis contributes to facial action recognition by modelling the spatial and temporal texture changes for AU activation detection and AU temporal segmentation and proposes a parametric temporal alignment method.
Out-of-plane action unit recognition using recurrent neural networks
TLDR
This work looks at methods of facial expression recognition, and in particular, the recognition of Facial Action Coding System’s (FACS) Action Units (AUs), and uses Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) to extract keypoints from the face and use the SURF descriptors to create feature vectors.
Automatic Detection of Facial Expressions from Video Streams THORAT Bali
TLDR
This research work attempts to recognize fine-grained changes in facial expression based on Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and automatic detection action units (AUs) based on threshold; this evaluation is based on geometrical features and threshold distance between standard points for person-independent facial expression recognition.
Autonomous facial expression recognition using the facial action coding system
TLDR
This research investigates enhanced recognition of whole facial expressions by means of a hybrid approach that combines traditional whole facial expression recognition with Action Unit recognition to achieve an enhanced classification approach.
A Methodology for Automated Facial Expression Recognition Using Facial Landmarks
TLDR
How software engineering best practices assisted in developing and implementing a methodology to leverage larger facial detection and facial landmarking datasets, as well as their improved accuracy over the Facial Action Coding System are described.
EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System
TLDR
EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.
Size variant landmark patches for Facial Action Unit detection
  • Duygu Cakir, N. Arica
  • Computer Science
    2016 IEEE 7th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON)
  • 2016
TLDR
This study introduces a sparse learning method for AU detection based on facial landmark patches that outperforms the state-of-the-art studies by gaining the highest F1 scores for almost all of the lower face Action Units.
DISFA: A Spontaneous Facial Action Intensity Database
TLDR
To meet the need for publicly available corpora of well-labeled video, the Denver intensity of spontaneous facial action database is collected, ground-truthed, and prepared for distribution.
Equine Facial Action Coding System for determination of pain-related facial responses in videos of horses
TLDR
Using a Facial Action Coding System modified for horses to code and analyse video recordings from an earlier study of acute short-term experimental pain and from clinical cases with and without pain, it is demonstrated for the first time EquiFACS based changes to pain in video of horses, using traditional statistical methods based on frequency and novel analyses based on sliding observation windows and co-occurrence of facial actions.
Applications of Automated Facial Coding in Media Measurement
TLDR
This work presents results of online facial coding studies of video ads, movie trailers, political content, and long-form TV shows, and explains how these data can be used in market research.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 11 REFERENCES
A Psychometric Evaluation of the Facial Action Coding System for Assessing Spontaneous Expression
The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (Ekman & Friesen, 1978) is a comprehensive and widely used method of objectively describing facial activity. Little is known, however, about inter-observer
Observer-based measurement of facial expression with the Facial Action Coding System.
TLDR
FACS is regarded by many as the standard measure for facial behavior and is used widely in diverse fields and beyond emotion science, these include facial neuromuscular disorders.
Spontaneous facial expression in unscripted social interactions can be measured automatically
TLDR
A major advance in automated coding of spontaneous facial actions during an unscripted social interaction involving three strangers is reported, suggesting automated FACS coding has progressed sufficiently to be applied to observational research in emotion and related areas of study.
What the face reveals : basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the facial action coding system (FACS)
Foreword Introduction The study of spontaneous facial expression in psychology I: BASIC RESEARCH ON EMOTION 1. Is the startle reaction an emotion? 2. The asymmetry of facial actions is inconsisten
Fully Automatic Facial Action Recognition in Spontaneous Behavior
TLDR
A user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the facial action coding system (FACS) and preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous expressions during discourse are presented.
The eyes have it: making positive expressions more positive and negative expressions more negative.
TLDR
Objective, automated measurements of facial action intensity were paired with continuous ratings of emotional valence to investigate whether a given facial action can index the intensity of both positive and negative infant facial expressions, suggesting parsimony in the early communication of emotion.
Darwin’s Duchenne: Eye Constriction during Infant Joy and Distress
TLDR
The results of the Face-to-Face/Still-Face procedure suggest that eye constriction–the Duchenne marker–has a systematic association with early facial expressions of intense negative and positive emotion.
Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.
TLDR
The results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.
Cue-provoked craving and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking cessation.
TLDR
NRT users could benefit from treatment that attenuates cue-provoked craving, and predicted relapse among participants on the nicotine patch but not among those on placebo.
Baby FACS: Facial Action Coding System for infants and young children. Unpublished Monograph and Coding Manual
  • Baby FACS: Facial Action Coding System for infants and young children. Unpublished Monograph and Coding Manual
  • 2006
...
...