Facebook Involvement, Objectified Body Consciousness, Body Shame, and Sexual Assertiveness in College Women and Men

  title={Facebook Involvement, Objectified Body Consciousness, Body Shame, and Sexual Assertiveness in College Women and Men},
  author={Adriana M. Manago and L. Monique Ward and Kristi M. Lemm and Lauren A. Reed and Rita C. Seabrook},
  journal={Sex Roles},
Given the heightened attention to visual impression management on social media websites, previous research has demonstrated an association between Facebook use and objectified body consciousness among adolescent girls and young women in various Western countries, including the U.S. (e.g., Meier and Gray 2013). The current study aimed to test whether both young women and men using social networking sites are vulnerable to objectified body consciousness, and to extend this line of research to… 
The Selfie Generation: Examining the Relationship Between Social Media Use and Early Adolescent Body Image
Social media use among adolescents continues to increase each year. This cross-sectional study explored how the amount of time spent using social media and the frequency of specific behaviors on
Look @ Me 2.0: Self-Sexualization in Facebook Photographs, Body Surveillance and Body Image
Growing attention has been paid to examining how women present themselves on Social Networking Sites (SNSs). Recently, researchers have found that SNSs seem to provide a unique forum for the
Objectified Body Consciousness, Body Image Control in Photos, and Problematic Social Networking: The Role of Appearance Control Beliefs
The previously unexplored predictive role of appearance control beliefs on problematic SNS use was evaluated, testing the mediating effect of body image control in photos (BICP) across male and female groups and results showed the negatively predictive role on control over body image in photos.
How Self-Compassion Moderates the Relation Between Body Surveillance and Body Shame Among Men and Women
According to objectification theory, being treated as an object leads people, especially women, to perceive themselves as objects. This self-objectification increases body surveillance and feelings
Adolescents’ Body Shame and Social Networking Sites: The Mediating Effect of Body Image Control in Photos
Adolescents’ social networking site (SNS) use has dramatically grown in the past few years and has increasingly become focused on pictures and visual self-presentation. Attention directed toward
Media and Sexualization: State of Empirical Research, 1995–2015
The findings provided consistent evidence that both laboratory exposure and regular, everyday exposure to this content are directly associated with a range of consequences, including higher levels of body dissatisfaction, greater self-objectification, greater support of sexist beliefs and of adversarial sexual beliefs, and greater tolerance of sexual violence toward women.
The Contribution of Social Media to Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disorder Symptoms, and Anabolic Steroid Use Among Sexual Minority Men
The associations of social media use with both muscularity dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were stronger for image-centric social media platforms than nonimage-centric platforms; no differences were observed for body fat dissatisfaction, height dissatisfaction, or thoughts about using anabolic steroids.
Masculine Norms, Peer Group, Pornography, Facebook, and Men’s Sexual Objectification of Women
In this study, we examined the relations between 3 dimensions of traditional masculine gender role adherence (playboy, power over women, and violence) and likelihood to sexually objectify women via
The Association Between Sexism, Self-Sexualization, and the Evaluation of Sexy Photos on Instagram
There were substantial correlations between appropriateness and attractiveness evaluations of the presented photos and the self-sexualizing posting behavior and enjoyment of sexualization of female users and only inconsistent effects could be found in men.
Sexual Object or Sexual Subject? Media Use, Self-Sexualization, and Sexual Agency Among Undergraduate Women
Objectification theorists argue that repeated exposure to sexually objectifying media content leads to higher levels of self-objectification. Although consequences of self-objectification for women’s


Does Exposure to Muscularity-Idealizing Images Have Self-Objectification Consequences for Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Men?
Although there is a substantial body of research on the effects of body objectification in women, there is a paucity of research on this topic in men. In the limited objectification theory research
Empowering or Oppressing? Development and Exploration of the Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale
There was little support for positive effects of enjoying sexualization, and women who both enjoyed sexualization and engaged in self-objectification reported more negative eating attitudes.
The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale
Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N = 502) and middle-aged
Body Objectification and Depression in Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Shame, and Rumination
Objectification theory posits that the tendency to view oneself as an object to be looked at and evaluated by others negatively affects girls', but not boys', subjective well-being. Although it has
NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.
The Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls and Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users.
Body Surveillance and Body Shame in College Men: Are Men Who Self-Objectify Less Hopeful?
The current study examined self-objectification and hope in a sample of undergraduate men from a Midwestern university in the United States (N = 227). Specifically, an online survey utilizing
Those Speedos Become Them
For gay men, increasing state self-objectification resulted in greater body shame and dissatisfaction and more restrained eating, which offers strong support to Objectification Theory as a useful framework from within which to view the experience of gay men.
The Role of Self-Objectification in Disordered Eating, Depressed Mood, and Sexual Functioning Among Women
Our study aimed to offer a comprehensive test of the model outlined in objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). A sample of 116 Australian female undergraduate students completed