Face Detection in Peripheral Vision: Do Faces Pop Out?

@article{Brown1997FaceDI,
  title={Face Detection in Peripheral Vision: Do Faces Pop Out?},
  author={Valerie Brown and Dale Huey and John M. Findlay},
  journal={Perception},
  year={1997},
  volume={26},
  pages={1555 - 1570}
}
We examined whether faces can produce a ‘pop-out’ effect in visual search tasks. In the first experiment, subjects' eye movements and search latencies were measured while they viewed a display containing a target face amidst distractors. Targets were upright or inverted faces presented with seven others of the opposite polarity as an ‘around-the-clock’ display. Face images were either photographic or ‘feature only’, with the outline removed. Naive subjects were poor at locating an upright face… Expand
Attention to upside-down faces: An exception to the inversion effect
TLDR
It is suggested that visual attributes that can influence the allocation of an observer's attention to faces are available in both upright and inverted orientations. Expand
At first sight: A high-level pop out effect for faces
TLDR
The results indicate that the association of pop out with elementary features and lower cortical areas may be incorrect, and face search, and indeed all feature search, may reflect high-level activity with generalization over spatial and other property details. Expand
Local feature suppression effect in face and non-face stimuli
TLDR
Findings indicate that faces are encoded as a basic visual feature by means of globally tuned face detectors, similar to the coding of other features. Expand
Spatial summation of face information.
TLDR
The data for face detection implied detection mechanisms that integrated linearly up to some small size, integrated more slowly up to an intermediate size, and failed to gain any improvement for information beyond some larger size. Expand
How Many Faces Can Be Processed during a Single Eye Fixation?
TLDR
The results suggest that 2–4 faces can be processed during one fixation of about 200 ms, and that threshold search time increased with increasing set size nearly linearly. Expand
Visual Search of Mooney Faces
TLDR
Results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention, and prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces; making faces a special object category for guiding attention. Expand
Face detection in infants and adults: Effects of orientation and color.
TLDR
It was found that 3- to 5-month-olds already displayed strong own-species biases in face detection-in attention capture, attention holding, and overall detection-suggesting a surprisingly early specialization for human face detection. Expand
The visual processing of human faces and bodies as visual stimuli in natural scenes
How faces are recognized and detected has been the focus of an extensive corpus of research. As such, it is now well established that human faces can be detected rapidly in a visual scene and thatExpand
Changing Faces: A Detection Advantage in the Flicker Paradigm
TLDR
It is found that changes were detected far more rapidly and accurately in faces than in other objects, suggesting a special role for faces in competition for visual attention and providing support for previous claims that human faces are processed differently than stimuli that may be of less biological significance. Expand
Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.
TLDR
fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Impact of Quality of the Image, Orientation, and Similarity of the Stimuli on Visual Search for Faces
Evidence from a series of visual-search experiments suggests that detecting an upright face amidst face-like distractors elicits a pattern of reaction times that is consistent with serial search. InExpand
Mental rotation of faces
TLDR
Results are interpreted as evidence against the view that inverted faces are processed in a qualitatively different manner from upright faces, and are also inconsistent with the hypothesis that inversion makes faces difficult to recognize because facial expression cannot be extracted from an inverted face. Expand
Specialized face processing and hemispheric asymmetry in man and monkey: Evidence from single unit and reaction time studies
TLDR
The authors' reaction time studies reveal that monkeys do behave like human subjects since they process facial configuration faster when stimuli are presented upright as compared with horizontal or inverted. Expand
Upside-down faces: a review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition.
  • T. Valentine
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • British journal of psychology
  • 1988
TLDR
It is concluded that the evidence that inverted faces are processed differently from upright faces is far from compelling, and therefore the effect of inversion provides little or no evidence of a unique process in face recognition. Expand
Why faces are and are not special: an effect of expertise.
TLDR
Three experiments show that for dog experts sufficiently knowledgeable to individuate dogs of the same breed, memory for photographs of dogs of that breed is as disrupted by inversion as is face recognition, consistent with the view that experts represent items in memory in terms of distinguishing features of a different kind than do novices. Expand
What causes the face inversion effect?
TLDR
The hypothesis that the "face inversion" effect results from the use of holistic shape representations is tested, which suggests that the susceptibility of nonface patterns to inversion should be a function of their degree of part decomposition. Expand
FACIAL ORGANIZATION BLOCKS ACCESS TO LOW-LEVEL FEATURES: AN OBJECT INFERIORITY EFFECT
The current study investigated the influence of a low-level local feature (curvature) and a high-level emergent feature (facial expression) on rapid search. These features distinguished the targetExpand
Saccade Target Selection During Visual Search
TLDR
The results suggest that the control of the initial eye movement during both simple and conjunction searches is through a spatially parallel process. Expand
Visual search: eye movements and peripheral vision.
  • J. Findlay
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • 1995
TLDR
A simple search task is studied in which a target is presented in a ring-shaped display of eight stimuli and saccades sometimes land at an intermediate position between the two targets, showing that the signal delivered by the search procedure is not necessarily highly localized. Expand
Neurones responsive to faces in the temporal cortex: studies of functional organization, sensitivity to identity and relation to perception.
TLDR
A functional organization of cells responsive to the sight of different views of the head that was found to be highly selective for particular individuals that were familiar to the monkey with selectivity persisting across a great variety of viewing conditions. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...