Fabrication of tungsten probe for hard tapping operation in atomic force microscopy.


We propose a method of producing a tungsten probe with high stiffness for atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to acquire enhanced phase contrast images and efficiently perform lithography. A tungsten probe with a tip radius between 20nm and 50nm was fabricated using electrochemical etching optimized by applying pulse waves at different voltages. The… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.10.027