FT Protein Movement Contributes to Long-Distance Signaling in Floral Induction of Arabidopsis

  title={FT Protein Movement Contributes to Long-Distance Signaling in Floral Induction of Arabidopsis},
  author={Laurent Corbesier and Coral Vincent and Seonghoe Jang and Fabio Fornara and Qingzhi Fan and Iain Robert Searle and Antonis Giakountis and Sara Farrona and Lionel Gissot and Colin G N Turnbull and George Coupland},
  pages={1030 - 1033}
In plants, seasonal changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which initiate long-distance signaling that induces flowering at the shoot apex. The identity of the long-distance signal has yet to be determined. In Arabidopsis, activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcription in leaf vascular tissue (phloem) induces flowering. We found that FT messenger RNA is required only transiently in the leaf. In addition, FT fusion proteins expressed specifically in phloem cells move to the apex and… 
NaKR1 regulates long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis
It is shown that a heavy-metal-associated (HMA) domain-containing protein, SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1), is activated by CONSTANS (CO) under long-day conditions and regulates long-distance movement of FT in Arabidopsis.
Regulation and identity of florigen: FLOWERING LOCUS T moves center stage.
Progress in defining the molecular mechanisms that activate this module in response to changing day length and the increasing evidence that FT protein is a major component of florigen are described.
Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.
This work shows that the FT activity, either from overexpressing or inducible transgenes or from the endogenous gene, to promote flowering is transmissible through a graft junction, and that an FT protein with a T7 tag is transported from a donor scion to the apical region of recipient stock plants and becomes detectable within a day or two.
The sugar transporter SWEET10 acts downstream of FLOWERING LOCUS T during floral transition of Arabidopsis thaliana
The results suggest that the FT-signaling pathway activates the transcription of a sucrose uptake/efflux carrier during floral transition, indicating that it alters the metabolism of flowering plants as well as reprogramming the transcriptionof floral regulators in the shoot meristem.
Mobile FT mRNA contributes to the systemic florigen signalling in floral induction
It is demonstrated that the Arabidopsis FT mRNA, independent of the FT protein, can move into the SAM, and the data suggest a possible role for FT mRNA in systemic floral signalling, and demonstrate that cis-transportation of cellular mRNA into SAM and meristem exclusion of pathogenic RNAs are two mechanistically distinct processes.
Leaf-produced floral signals.
  • J. Zeevaart
  • Environmental Science
    Current opinion in plant biology
  • 2008
Florigen trafficking integrates photoperiod and temperature signals in Arabidopsis.
It is suggested that ambient temperatures regulate both FT mRNA expression and FT protein trafficking to prevent precocious flowering at low temperatures and ensure plant reproductive success under favorable environmental conditions.
Systemic movement of FT mRNA and a possible role in floral induction
There is a promotion of flowering when increased levels of virally expressed FT mRNA are present together with endogenously produced FT protein in inducing conditions, even if the additional FT mRNA is non-translatable and thus not increasing the overall levels of FT protein.


Integration of Spatial and Temporal Information During Floral Induction in Arabidopsis
Data suggest that FT primarily controls the timing of flowering of Arabidopsis, and that integration of temporal and spatial information is mediated in part by the bZIP transcription factor FD, which is already expressed at the shoot apex before floral induction.
FD, a bZIP Protein Mediating Signals from the Floral Pathway Integrator FT at the Shoot Apex
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is
Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT.
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which acts in parallel with the meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY) to induce flowering of Arabidopsis, was isolated by activation tagging and the deduced sequence was similar to the sequence of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), an inhibitor of flowering that also shares sequence similarity with membrane-associated mammalian proteins.
CONSTANS acts in the phloem to regulate a systemic signal that induces photoperiodic flowering of Arabidopsis
It is proposed that, partly through the activation of FT, CO regulates the synthesis or transport of a systemic flowering signal, thereby positioning this signal within the established hierarchy of regulatory proteins that controls flowering.
Hd3a Protein Is a Mobile Flowering Signal in Rice
It is shown that the protein encoded by Hd3a, a rice ortholog of FT, moves from the leaf to the shoot apical meristem and induces flowering in rice, suggesting that the Hd 3a protein may be the rice florigen.
The Flowering Integrator FT Regulates SEPALLATA3 and FRUITFULL Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leavesw⃞
It is proposed that FT functions through partner-dependent transcriptional activation of these and as-yet-unknown genes and that this occurs at several sites and that organ fate may depend on both degree of activation and the developmental stage reached by the organ before activation occurs.
The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli.
It is shown that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and is encoded by SFT.
Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis.
Four early target genes of CO were identified using a steroid-inducible version of the protein to define common components of distinct flowering-time pathways.
Graft Transmission of a Floral Stimulant Derived from CONSTANS1
Grafts that conjoined the vegetative stems of plants with different flower-timing phenotypes demonstrated that minor-vein expression of CO is able to substitute for photoperiod in generating a mobile flowering signal, suggesting that a CO-derived signal(s) fits the definition of the hypothetical flowering stimulant, florigen.
A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals.
Flowering in Arabidopsis is promoted via several interacting pathways and FT acts in part downstream of CO and mediates signals for flowering in an antagonistic manner with its homologous gene, TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1).