FRONTIER, FORTIFICATION, AND FORESTATION: DEFENSIVE WOODLAND ON THE SONG–LIAO BORDER IN THE LONG ELEVENTH CENTURY

@article{Chen2018FRONTIERFA,
  title={FRONTIER, FORTIFICATION, AND FORESTATION: DEFENSIVE WOODLAND ON THE SONG–LIAO BORDER IN THE LONG ELEVENTH CENTURY},
  author={Yuan Julian Chen},
  journal={Journal of Chinese History},
  year={2018},
  volume={2},
  pages={313 - 334}
}
  • Y. Chen
  • Published 18 June 2018
  • History
  • Journal of Chinese History
ABSTRACT This article examines the creation, preservation, and destruction of the defensive forest that the Northern Song built in Hebei along the Song–Liao border. Created as a landscape barrier against the Kitan attacks, this forest established the necessary strategic depth between the capital city and the northern frontline of the Song empire to compensate for Kaifeng's geographical vulnerability. While the Song government painstakingly maintained this forest throughout most of the dynasty… 

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Ponds, Paddies and Frontier Defence
At the end of the 10th century, the Northern Song government constructed a series of ponds in northern Hebei in order to thwart its nomadic rival, the Khitan Liao. Throughout the following one and a
The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of the Legions in the Teutoburg Forest
In AD 9, a Roman traitor led an army of barbarians who trapped and then slaughtered three entire Roman legions: 20,000 men, half the Roman army in Europe. If not for this battle, the Roman Empire
(Re)Constructing the Frontiers of Tenth-Century North China
The northern frontier of China is frequently equated with the Great Wall. The line of the Wall is widely regarded as delimiting ‘China proper’ (see Map 3.1), separating ‘civilisation’ from the
The Great Ditch of China and the Song-Liao Border
In his 1990 book, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth, Arthur Waldron described how the inability of the central government of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) to make a strategic policy
The River, the Plain, and the State: An Environmental Drama in Northern Song China, 1048-1128
On July 19, 1048, the Yellow River breached its banks, drastically changing its course across the Hebei Plain and turning it into a delta where the river sought a path out to the ocean. This dramatic
The Great Wall and Conceptualizations of the Border Under the Northern Song
Since the publication of the seminal work of Arthur Waldron, it has been widely assumed that the location of the Great Wall of China was not fixed over time, that the Wall as it exists today is a
Emperor Huizong and late Northern Song China : the politics of culture and the culture of politics
Huizong was an exceptional emperor who lived through momentous times. A man of many talents, he wrote poetry and created his own distinctive calligraphy style; collected paintings, calligraphies and
American Liberty Elms and Beyond: Going from the Impossible to the Difficult
‘American Liberty’ elms are a group of hardy elms from our breeding and selection program which possess an upright vase shape, disease resistance and a vigorous growth habit. These elms constitute a
Micropropagation and germplasm conservation of Central Park Splendor Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. ‘A/Ross Central Park’) trees
TLDR
Three simple and efficient systems for in vitro plant formation from meristematic nodules (MNs), plantlet generation from axillary buds, and in vitro rooting of micro-cuttings from 20-years-old hedged stock plants are presented.
Paper and printing
Part one of the fifth volume of Joseph Needham's great enterprise is written by one of the project's collaborators. Professor Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin, working in regular consultation with Dr Needham, has
...
...