FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

  title={FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?},
  author={V P Reutov and Alan N Schechter},
The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists… Expand
Pathology: A Review
If the high expectations for the clinical use of genetics and genomics, gene polymorphisms have not justified, the possibility of metabolomics and proteomics are so great that their use in the diagnosis has not yet begun, and the diagnostic interpretation of biochemical data is not prepared. Expand
FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS On the addition of velocities in the theory of relativity
Presented in translation from the German is Arnold Sommerfeld's paper ''Uber die Zusammensetzung der Geschwindigkeiten in der Relativtheorie'', Physikalische Zeitschrift 10 826 (1909), which retainsExpand
Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics
Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bringExpand
V A Fock and gauge symmetry
V A Fock, in 1926, was the first to have the idea of an Abelian gradient transformation and to discover that the electromagnetic interaction of charged particles has a gradient invariance in theExpand
Aging of dogs and Drosophila as described based on the kinetic theory
The mathematical model of the kinetic theory of aging was demonstrated to describe the probability density ofdeath, probability of death, and the average longevity of the biological systems studied. Expand
P72: Can violations of nitric oxide and superoxide anion radical cycles influence the process of demyelination-remyelination at Guillain–Barre syndrome?
Background Many medical specialists investigated the role of NO and NO-synthases in biological systems. To our mind, many incomprehensible phenomena and facts that are contradictory at the firstExpand
In memory of the first Russian scientist (1711?1911)
The article below was written by Petr Nikolaevich Lebedev in 1911 to mark the bicentenary year of the birth of Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov. P N Lebedev's words about the sad fate of Russian scienceExpand
[The possible role of nitrogen dioxide produced in the field of bifurcation of vessels, in the processes of their damage in hemorrhagic strokes, and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques].
A new concept of the mechanism of initial formation of Atherosclerotic plaques is proposed, which can complement the existing concepts and considers the hypothesis of the possibility of participation of NO2 and OH-radicals formed in violation of the cycles of NO and superoxide in the mechanisms of vascular damage with hemorrhagic stroke and in the formation of atherosclerosis plaques. Expand
Development history of the laser
An attempt is made at objectively assessing the contribution made by Soviet scientists to the origination of laser physics, which the author believes tends to be underestimated abroad. Together withExpand
FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS On the invariant form of the wave and motion equations for a charged point mass
The Schrodinger wave equation and the equations of motion are written as an invariant Laplace equation and the equation for a geodesic in five-dimensional space, respectively. The superfluous fifthExpand


A Physicist Looks at Genetics
AS a result of the War, many scientific workers have been too busy with the applications of science to keep up even with the development of their own branch. Schrödinger, as an exile in neutral Eire,Expand
遺伝子の分子生物学 = Molecular biology of the gene
The long-awaited Fifth Edition of James D. Watson's classic text, Molecular Biology of the Gene, has been thoroughly revised and is published to coincide with the 50th anniversary of Watson andExpand
Complementarity, physics, and biology
The views of Niels Bohr on complementarity are examined, both in physics and in other fields. N. Bohr's opinions on the relationship between physics and biology are discussed in detail. It is shownExpand
FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energyExpand
The modern theory of valency
NEARLY 100 years ago, in 1852, it was stated for the first time, by E. Frankland, that atoms have a definite combining power, which determines the formulas of compounds. Then in 1858 Archibald S.Expand
REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The origin of life and thinking from the viewpoint of modern physics
It is shown that thinking reduces largely to pattern recognition and a possible molecular mechanism of recognition is considered which is shown to be quite likely to have appeared in the course of evolution. Expand
The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA
This is a reissue of the classic account of the discovery of the structure of DNA, where James D. Watson tells of the excitement of being a young American scientist in Cambridge and how he saw the challenge of a great discovery waiting to be made. Expand
Linus Pauling
  • M. Perutz
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Nature Structural Biology
  • 1994
Linus Pauling's work on the nature of the chemical bond led to an approximate theoretical calculation of the energy of formation and other properties of very simple molecules, such as H2, and has also led to a study of wave mechanics on wave mechanical principles. Expand
Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI)
The first international conference on the problem of extraterrestrial civilizations, and contact with them, was held in September 1971 in Soviet Armenia. The conference was a gathering of specialistsExpand
Geniuses like this are very rare today...
This paper gives insight into the context of how Lomonosov developed into a scientist and a physicist; reviews his major achievements in physics; discusses his epistemological method, and exploresExpand