FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. I. A RADIAL VELOCITY SEARCH FOR MASSIVE, LONG-PERIOD COMPANIONS TO CLOSE-IN GAS GIANT PLANETS

@article{Knutson2014FRIENDSOH,
  title={FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. I. A RADIAL VELOCITY SEARCH FOR MASSIVE, LONG-PERIOD COMPANIONS TO CLOSE-IN GAS GIANT PLANETS},
  author={Heather A. Knutson and Benjamin J. Fulton and Benjamin T. Montet and Melodie M. Kao and Henry Ngo and Andrew W. Howard and Justin R. Crepp and Sasha Hinkley and G{\'a}sp{\'a}r {\'A}. Bakos and Konstantin Batygin and John Asher Johnson and Timothy D. Morton and Philip S. Muirhead},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2014},
  volume={785}
}
In this paper we search for distant massive companions to known transiting gas giant planets that may have influenced the dynamical evolution of these systems. We present new radial velocity observations for a sample of 51 planets obtained using the Keck HIRES instrument, and find statistically significant accelerations in fifteen systems. Six of these systems have no previously reported accelerations in the published literature: HAT-P-10, HAT-P-22, HAT-P-29, HAT-P-32, WASP-10, and XO-2. We… 
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HAT-P-11 is a mid-K dwarf that hosts one of the first Neptune-sized planets found outside the solar system. The orbit of HAT-P-11b is misaligned with the star’s spin—one of the few known cases of a
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