FREQUENCIES OF SPIRAL AND GREEN-BONE FRACTURES ON UNGULATE LIMB BONES IN MODERN SURF ACE ASSEMBLAGES

@inproceedings{Haynes2003FREQUENCIESOS,
  title={FREQUENCIES OF SPIRAL AND GREEN-BONE FRACTURES ON UNGULATE LIMB BONES IN MODERN SURF ACE ASSEMBLAGES},
  author={G. Clark Haynes},
  year={2003}
}
During observational fieldwork in undisturbed ranges of free-rooming bison and moose, I have identified approximately BOfo of surface bones as spirally or green-fractured due to documented carnivore activity, and 50fo as spirally or green-fractured due to trampling or dust wallowing by bison. The bones of smaller species suffer up to 500fo breakage. Bone modifications by wild wolves and bears are briefly described, as are characteristics of fractures caused by trampling and wallowing. 
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