FRAME Annual Lecture. International co-operation: an essential requirement for replacing animal toxicity tests.

@article{Spielmann2001FRAMEAL,
  title={FRAME Annual Lecture. International co-operation: an essential requirement for replacing animal toxicity tests.},
  author={H. Spielmann},
  journal={Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA},
  year={2001},
  volume={29 6},
  pages={
          637-46; discussion 647-8
        }
}
  • H. Spielmann
  • Published 2001 in Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA
The Three Rs concept, which was developed by Russell and Burch in 1959, was implemented into the legal framework in the European Union (EU) for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, when Directive 86/609/EEC was adopted in 1986. One focus of activity under this Directive is the use of animals and alternative methods in regulatory testing. To reduce or replace animal testing for regulatory purposes, non-animal tests must be independently… CONTINUE READING