FORM REGULATION IN ZOÖTHAMNIUM ALTERNANS

@article{Summers1938FORMRI,
  title={FORM REGULATION IN ZO{\"O}THAMNIUM ALTERNANS},
  author={Francis Marion Summers},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  year={1938},
  volume={74},
  pages={130-154}
}
  • F. Summers
  • Published 1 February 1938
  • Biology
  • The Biological Bulletin
1. Zoothamnium alternans is a colonial protozoan of a rather special type whose constituent cells collectively possess in some degree many of the attributes of an integrated organism. Some of the integrating factors can be described in general terms from the work undertaken on form regulation.2. When the apical cell of the primary axis is dissected away from a developing colony, a cell on some inferior branch, usually the first below the cut, will differentiate into a new apical cell. The… 
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SOME ASPECTS OF NORMAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE COLONIAL CILIATE ZOÖTHAMNIUM ALTERNANS
1. The frond-like colonies of Zoothamnium alternans develop according to a well-determined pattern. This development is described with particular reference to the origin of the heteromorphic
EFFECTS PRODUCED BY CUTTING PARAMECIUM CELLS
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The present paper is a summary of about 150 recorded experiments on the power of regeneration in different races of "giant" Paramecium, a cell which may be easily cut with a scalpel and has strong evidence of a division zone in the center of the cell.
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Such an organism as the tubularian hydroid is well adapted to the experimental study of these processes because it possesses the growth impulse to a marked degree and because this impulse manifests it in the process of reproduction.
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TLDR
Paramecia cut in half transversely usually die as the nucleus is forced out by the pressure of the knife, but when the nucleus remains in one of the halves regeneration is followed in that half by normal division.
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