FMRI of Ventral and Dorsal Processing Streams in Basic Reading Processes: Insular Sensitivity to Phonology

  title={FMRI of Ventral and Dorsal Processing Streams in Basic Reading Processes: Insular Sensitivity to Phonology},
  author={Ron Borowsky and Jacqueline Cummine and William J. Owen and Chris Kelland Friesen and Francis Shih and Gordon E. Sarty},
  journal={Brain Topography},
SummaryMost current models of the neurophysiology of basic reading processes agree on a system involving two cortical streams: a ventral stream (occipital-temporal) used when accessing familiar words encoded in lexical memory, and a dorsal stream (occipital-parietal-frontal) used when phonetically decoding words (i.e., mapping sublexical spelling onto sounds). The models diverge, however, on the issue of whether the insular cortex is involved. The present fMRI study required participants to… 
Neural Representations of Visual Words and Objects: A Functional MRI Study on the Modularity of Reading and Object Processing
A reconsideration of “modularity of mind” is discussed which involves a continuum between strictly modular processing and varying degrees of shared processing, and which also depends on the nature of the tasks compared (i.e., perceptual versus analytical).
Functionally distinct contributions of the anterior and posterior putamen during sublexical and lexical reading
It is shown that both the anterior and posterior putamen are involved in articulating speech with greater activation during overt speech production tasks (reading, repetition, object naming, and color naming) than silent one-back-matching on the same stimuli.
Investigating the ventral-lexical, dorsal-sublexical model of basic reading processes using diffusion tensor imaging
The notion that word recognition, in general, and exception word reading in particular, rely on ventral-lexical brain regions is supported.
On the dissociation between reaction time and response duration as a function of lexical and sublexical reading: An examination of phonetic decoding and computational models
ABSTRACT Neurobiological models of reading account for two ways in which orthography is converted to phonology: (1) familiar words, particularly those with exceptional spelling-sound mappings (e.g.,
Investigating the contribution of ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical pathways during reading in bilinguals
It is concluded that the relative contribution of the dorsal system for reading is greater in bilinguals than monolinguals and this findings implicate a role of the right hemisphere in reading.


Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability (developmental dyslexia).
This work proposes a neurobiological account suggesting that for normally developing readers the dorsal circuit predominates at first, and is associated with analytic processing necessary for learning to integrate orthographic features with phonological and lexical-semantic features of printed words.
Neuroimaging of language processes: fMRI of silent and overt lexical processing and the promise of multiple process imaging in single brain studies.
The multiple-process imaging method introduced here was sensitive to processing robust orthographic, phonological, and semantic regions, particularly under the overt response condition, and demonstrated that the activation of multiple established language processing regions can be achieved in a significant number of participants.
Cerebral organization of component processes in reading.
The cerebral organization of word identification processes in reading was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a strategy of multiple subtractions was employed in order to validate relationships between structure and function.
Functional MRI evidence for an abstract, not perceptual, word-form area.
Results suggest that the response of the so-called word-form area is not based on perceptual familiarity but rather on some more abstract feature such as orthographic regularity.
Atypical Brain Activation of Reading Processes in Children With Developmental Dyslexia
The results suggest that dyslexic readers fail to use brain areas that are normally specialized in language processing, but rather use areas that underlie visuospatial processing.
Modularity and Intersection of “What”, “Where” and “How” Processing of Visual Stimuli: A New Method of fMRI Localization
Two types of functional imaging maps are presented that directly show modularity and intersection of processing function for word and picture stimuli in tasks that require decisions about “what is”, “where is’, or “how do you interact with” a stimulus.
The Neurobiological Basis of Skilled and Impaired Reading: Recent Findings and New Directions
In recent years, significant progress has been made in the study of reading and reading disability with the use of functional neuroimaging techniques. There is substantial converging evidence that
Handbook of functional neuroimaging of cognition
This essential resource on neuroimaging provides an accessible and user-friendly introduction to the field written by leading researchers, and is ideal for classroom use in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cognitive neuroscience.
The Role of the Left Hemisphere in Motor Control of Touch: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis
A contralateral advantage in the motor cortex of both hemispheres is found in a majority of participants (14/16) when consistently activated BOLD volumes were examined, which suggests that verbally mediated sequencing of finger movements can account for the less frequent result.