Eye problems and visual display terminals—the facts and the fallacies

  title={Eye problems and visual display terminals—the facts and the fallacies},
  author={W. David Thomson},
  journal={Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics},
  • W. Thomson
  • Published 1 March 1998
  • Business
  • Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
Estimates of the prevalence of eye problems associated with using visual display terminals (VDTs) vary enormously depending on the sample tested and the research methods employed. However, most authors agree that eye problems are common among VDT users. In this paper, the relative contributions of the nature of VDT displays, workstation design, work‐practices and optometric factors are discussed, drawing from the substantial body of literature which now exists on this subject. 
10 Citations
Effect of reading with direct or indirect light on the visually evoked flow response in the posterior cerebral artery
The aim was to compare the blood flow response in the supplying artery of the visual cortex when reading from tablet screen or from paper, and the neurovascular coupling was tested.
Computer‐related visual symptoms in office workers
Citation information: Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Bababekova Y, Estrada JM & Leon A. Computer‐related visual symptoms in office workers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012, 32, 375–382. doi:
Relationship between ergonomic parameters and ocular symptoms among computer users
This study intends to evaluate and characterize the symptoms associated with the use of computers, identify the shortcomings of ergonomic factors and relate the ergonomic guidelines adopted with the symptoms resulting from the using of VDT’s.
Computer vision syndrome prevalence according to individual and video display terminal exposure characteristics in Spanish university students
To estimate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome in university students and its relationship with sociodemographic and optical correction factors and exposure to video display terminal (VDT), a large number of students are exposed to VDT.
Possible association between heavy computer users and glaucomatous visual field abnormalities: a cross sectional study in Japanese workers
Although there are limitations to this study, such as its cross sectional design, heavy computer users with refractive errors seem to have an increased risk of FDT-VFA.
A comparison of symptoms after viewing text on a computer screen and hardcopy
A comparison of symptoms after viewing text on a computer screen and hardcopy and on a hardcopy is compared to find out which method is more effective for treating eye problems.
Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments
  • M. Rosenfield
  • Medicine
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 2011
Citation information: Rosenfield M. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2011, 31, 502–515. doi: 10.1111/j.1475‐1313.2011.00834.x
The Effects of Long-Term Smartphone Usage Time and of Stretching on Stiffness, Concentration, and Visual Acuity
The results from this study indicate that long-term smartphone usage effectively improved concentration but increased muscle stiffness and decreased visual acuity.
Impact of lifestyle intervention on dry eye disease in office workers: a randomized controlled trial
To evaluate the effects of a 2month lifestyle intervention for dry eye disease in office workers, a large number of office workers were randomly assigned to receive a 12-week or two-month course of treatment.


Color of visual display terminals and the eye. Green VDTs provide the optimal stimulus to accommodation.
  • J. Sivak, G. Woo
  • Biology
    American journal of optometry and physiological optics
  • 1983
The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye is substantial and therefore the color of the phosphor chosen for a visual display terminal (VDT) will affect refractive state and accommodative
Effect of visual display terminal (VDT) work on myopia progression
  • T. Tokoro
  • Medicine
    Acta ophthalmologica. Supplement
  • 1988
The purpose of this study was to find out whether late myopia is associated with VDT work or not.
Effect of Visual Display Unit Use on Blink Rate and Tear Stability
In normal healthy subjects, the results show an average 5-fold drop in blink rate during VDU use but tear stability appears to be unaffected, and a significant relation was found to exist between the interval between blinks and the stability of the precorneal tear film.
Visual Performance at Video Display Terminals—Effects of Screen Color and Illuminant Type
The results suggest that displays and illuminant types that are in common use allow substantially equivalent visual performance.
Visual Fatigue in VDT Operators
The incidence of visual fatigue was investigated in a group of clerical workers whose jobs required the use of visual display terminals (VDTs) for varying proportions of their workdays. Assessment
Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus.
Whether or not visual strain is lower at viewing distances greater than 50 cm is investigated, and whether the optimal viewing distance is determined by the individual's accommodation in a condition without fixational stimulus is studied.
Psychology of Computer Use: XXXVI. Visual Discomfort and Different Types of Work at Videodisplay Terminals
Chi-squared indicated that visual discomfort was not significantly related to any particular type of work for subjects with similar amounts of weekly time using videodisplay units.
Vision and visual environment for VDT work
The characteristics of VDT work are described, and the vision-related characteristics of the CRT are reported on, which is the most popular information display device.
The Perception of Flicker on Raster-Scanned Displays
The hypothesis that people are more sensitive to flicker on raster-scanned displays if the field scan direction is changed is supported by the observation that the effect's magnitude correlates with daily exposure time to televisions and VDTs and by a pilot study showing that theeffect is reduced when one views a television scanned from bottom to top for 1 h.
Eyestrain in VDU Users: Viewing Distance and the Resting Position of Ocular Muscles
The more distant the individual's dark convergence, the greater was the visual strain at the 50-cm viewing distance, and during work at a visual display unit (VDU), visual strain was stronger than at 100 cm (with characters twice as large).