Eye movements of vertebrates and their relation to eye form and function

  title={Eye movements of vertebrates and their relation to eye form and function},
  author={Michael F. Land},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  • M. Land
  • Published 1 February 2015
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology A
The types of eye movements shown by all vertebrates originated in the earliest fishes. These consisted of compensatory movements, both vestibular and visual, to prevent image motion, and saccades to relocate gaze. All vertebrates fixate food items with their heads to enable ingestion, but from teleosts onwards some species also use eye movements to target particular objects, especially food. Eye movement use is related to the resolution distribution in the retina, with eyes that contain foveas… 

Does retinal configuration make the head and eyes of foveate birds move?

The hypothesis that changes in retinal ganglion cell density from the retinal periphery to the center of acute vision-fovea would account for the inter-specific variation in avian head/eye movement behavior is tested.

Eye movements in man and other animals

The Evolution of Gaze Shifting Eye Movements.

  • M. Land
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current topics in behavioral neurosciences
  • 2018
In animals with good eyesight most eye movements consist of saccades, which rapidly shift the direction of the eye's axis, and intervals between the saccades (fixations) in which gaze is kept

Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl

Indian peafowl use eye and head movements to shift their gaze but, unlike mammals, they do not rely on the vestibulo-ocular reflex to stabilize their gaze.

Two Distinct Types of Eye-Head Coupling in Freely Moving Mice

Oculomotor strategy of an avian ground forager: tilted and weakly yoked eye saccades

European starlings employ a unique oculomotor strategy that meets the visual demands of foraging and avoiding predators in open habitats and is similar to independent saccades, which suggest eye movements play variable but important roles across bird species with different ecological niches.

Dog eye movements are slower than human eye movements

It is found dog saccades follow the systematic relationships between saccade metrics previously shown in humans and other animal species, yet the details of the relationships, and the quantities of each metric of dog sAccades and fixations differed from those of humans.

How Lovebirds Maneuver Rapidly Using Super-Fast Head Saccades and Image Feature Stabilization

Observations show that rapidly maneuvering birds use precisely timed stereotypic gaze behaviors consisting of rapid head turns and frontal feature stabilization, which facilitates optical flow based flight control.

Encoding of 3D Head Orienting Movements in Primary Visual Cortex

It is shown that 3D head orienting movements modulate V1 neuronal activity in a direction-specific manner that also depends on the presence or absence of light, and the pervasive role of 3D movement in shaping sensory cortical dynamics is revealed.

Avian binocular vision: It’s not just about what birds can see, it’s also about what they can’t

It is argued that there is more to avian binocularity than meets the eye, and that binocular field width is not solely determined by the need for stereoscopic vision.



Eye–Head Coordination during Free Exploration in Human and Cat

Interestingly, compensatory (gaze‐stabilizing) movements play a more dominant role in humans than they do in cats, with cats’ head movements showing about a 5‐fold faster dynamics than humans.

Eye movements of laterally eyed birds are not independent

It is demonstrated for the first time that laterally eyed zebra finches show coordinated eye movements, regarding direction and amplitude, and it is suggested that the counter-movements maintain the spatial relationship of the two visual fields.

Motion and vision: why animals move their eyes

  • M. Land
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 1999
Some insects (e.g. hoverflies) stabilise their gaze much more rigidly than this rule implies, and it is suggested that the need to see the motion of small objects against a background imposes even more stringent conditions on image motion.

What are birds looking at? Head movements and eye use in chickens

Abstract Using video recordings of hens, Gallus gallus domesticus , as they approached different kinds of objects, I examined how change in object distance is associated with a change from lateral to

Control of eye—head coordination during orienting gaze shifts

  • D. Guitton
  • Biology, Psychology
    Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1992

Fixational eye movements across vertebrates: comparative dynamics, physiology, and perception.

Five decades of fixational eye movement studies in non-human vertebrates in humans and primates are reviewed, and the existing evidence concerning their physiological and perceptual effects are discussed.

Vestibular gaze stabilization: different behavioral strategies for arboreal and terrestrial avians.

Investigation of the contributions of the eye and head to gaze stabilization during rotations under both head-fixed and head-free conditions in two avian species suggests that disparity between the stabilization strategies employed by these two birds may be attributed to differences in species-specific behavior and anatomy.

Saccadic, smooth pursuit, and optokinetic eye movements of the trained cat.

The response to a Rashbass step‐ramp target suggests that the feline smooth response is a function of target movement rather than displacement, and suggest that the cat smooth pursuit and optokinetically induced eye movements are more similar to those of the rabbit.

Conjugate and disjunctive saccades in two avian species with contrasting oculomotor strategies

  • J. WallmanJ. Pettigrew
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1985
It is found that both birds spend most of the time with their eyes confined to a small region of gaze, the primary position of gaze; in this position, the visual axes are much more diverged in the frogmouth than in the eagle, thereby giving it a larger total field of view at the expense of its binocular field.

Eye-head coordination in cats.

In monkeys, a gaze shift is programmed with a single saccade that will, by itself, take the eye to a target, irrespective of whether the head moves, and in cats, rapid horizontal gaze shifts to visual targets within and beyond the OMR are studied.