Extreme sports are good for your health: A phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport

  title={Extreme sports are good for your health: A phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport},
  author={Eric Brymer and Robert D. Schweitzer},
  journal={Journal of Health Psychology},
  pages={477 - 487}
Extreme sports are traditionally explored from a risk-taking perspective which often assumes that participants do not experience fear. In this article we explore participants’ experience of fear associated with participation in extreme sports. An interpretive phenomenological method was used with 15 participants. Four themes emerged: experience of fear, relationship to fear, management of fear, and fear and self-transformation. Participants’ experience of extreme sports was revealed in terms of… 

An Exploratory Study of Extreme Sport Athletes’ Nature Interactions: From Well-Being to Pro-environmental Behavior

The findings suggest that extreme sport participation, while inherently risky has psychological benefits ranging from evoking positive emotions, developing resilience and life coping skills to cultivating strong affinity to and connection with nature and the natural environment.

Evoking the Ineffable: The Phenomenology of Extreme Sports

We are witnessing an unprecedented interest in and engagement with extreme sport activities. Extreme sports are unique in that they involve physical prowess as well as a particular attitude toward

Psychology and the Extreme Sport Experience

The term ‘extreme sports’ has become synonymous with a variety of nontraditional adventure experiences. Terminologies such as ‘whiz sports’, ‘free sports’, ‘adventure sports’, ‘lifestyle sports’,

Beyond risk: the importance of adventure in the everyday life of young people

ABSTRACT Adventure and extreme sports (AESs) are associated with high risk of injury and even death. This has important ramifications for sport, education, medical and health professions and has led

Accepting or avoiding fear : A study of how elite freestyle snowboarders experience and cope with snowboard-related fear from an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy perspective

Elite freestyle snowboarders often expose themselves to large risks while performing their sport. A natural response to risk is fear, and it is the aim of this study to explore how elite freestyle

The search for freedom in extreme sports : a phenomenological exploration

Experience and Management of Fear in Men's World Cup Alpine Ski Racing

The findings indicate one's experience and management of fear may be influenced by contextual factors (e.g., weather, course profile) and confidence, and that confidence is influenced by the same situational factors that influence fear as well as athlete preparation.

Doing descriptive phenomenological data collection in sport psychology research

Abstract Researchers in the field of sport psychology have begun to highlight the potential of phenomenological approaches in recognizing subjective experience and the essential structure of

An Ecological Conceptualization of Extreme Sports

It is suggested that extreme sports are more effectively defined as emergent forms of action and adventure sports, consisting of an inimitable person-environment relationship with exquisite affordances for ultimate perception and movement experiences, leading to existential reflection and self-actualization as framed by the human form of life.

‘I don’t want to die. That’s not why I do it at all’: multifaceted motivation, psychological health, and personal development in BASE jumping

ABSTRACT This study explored a veteran female BASE jumper's experiences in relation to (a) participation phases, motivations and emotions; (b) risk perceptions and psychological management



A Phenomenological Investigation of the Experience of Taking Part in `Extreme Sports'

  • C. Willig
  • Psychology
    Journal of health psychology
  • 2008
The article questions the assumptions that psychological health is commensurate with maintaining physical safety, and that risking one's health and physical safety is necessarily a sign of psychopathology.

Risk taking in Extreme Sports: A phenomenological perspective

Abstract Participation in extreme sports is enjoying incredible growth while more traditional recreational activities such as golf are struggling to maintain numbers. Theoretical perspectives on

Extreme Sports: A positive transformation in courage and humility

Extreme sports and extreme sports participants have been most commonly explored from a negative perspective, for example the “need to take unnecessary risks.” This study explored what can be learned

Developing an intimate “relationship” with nature through extreme sports participation

This article explores the interplay between extreme sports and the natural world in which they take place. Prior theoretical work on extreme sports has often made anthropocentric assumptions about

The Risk-Sport Process: An Alternative Approach for Humanistic Physical Education

Physical education has a rich tradition of concern for the development of fully functioning individuals, but this tradition is in danger of being marginalized by the dominant technocratic and

Dancing with nature: rhythm and harmony in extreme sport participation

Research on extreme sports has downplayed the importance of the athletes' connection to the natural world. This neglect stems, in part, from the assumption that these activities derive their meaning

Extreme Sports as a Precursor to Environmental Sustainability

Extreme sports have unfortunately gained a reputation for being risk focused and adrenaline fuelled. This perspective has obscured the place of the natural world, making extreme athletes appear to

Stress Seeking: Selected Behavioral Characteristics of Elite Rock Climbers

Although it has generated much theorizing (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; Ellis, 1973; Harris, 1980; Mitchell, 1983), the phenomenon of stress-seeking behavior, as demonstrated in regular long-term

Living “extreme”: Adventure sports, media and commercialisation

Participation in extreme sports, sometimes called adventure sports, action sports or even individualistic sports, has vastly increased in the last 20 years. The terms are still up for debate, only

The “Things Themselves” in Phenomenology

Abstract The following paper explores the foundations of phenomenology, and seeks to provide those new to the discipline with ways of understanding its claims to assist knowers to attend to ‘the