A new dance fly (Empididae: Empidinae) with hugely modified male fore tarsus, either on the right, left, both or neither sides, is described from Japan. Such massive polymorphic asymmetry occurring with so high an incidence in a population is previously unreported. In view of the courtship behaviour of other Empidinae, we hypothesize that the oversized tarsus is a secondary sexual character employed by males for attracting females. Alternative hypotheses are also discussed. We suggest that this extraordinary new species is a potential model for the study of mating biology in Empidinae and the evolution of mating systems in general.