Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

  title={Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault},
  author={Rupert Sutherland and John Townend and Virginia G. Toy and Phaedra Upton and Jamie Coussens and Michael J. Allen and L. Baratin and Nicolas C. Barth and Leeza Becroft and Carolin Morag Boese and A. Boles and Carolyn Boulton and Neil Broderick and Lucie Janku‐Capova and Brett M. Carpenter and Bernard C{\'e}l{\'e}rier and Calum John Chamberlain and Alan F. Cooper and Ashley Coutts and Simon C. Cox and Lisa Craw and Mai‐Linh Doan and Jennifer D. Eccles and Daniel R. Faulkner and Jason Grieve and Julia Grochowski and Anton K. Gulley and Arthur Hartog and Jamie D. Howarth and Katrina M. Jacobs and Tamara N. Jeppson and Naoki Kato and Steven Keys and Martina Kirilova and Yusuke Kometani and Robert M. Langridge and Weiren Lin and Timothy A. Little and Adrienn Luk{\'a}cs and Deirdre Mallyon and Elisabetta Mariani and C{\'e}cile Massiot and Loren Mathewson and Benjamin L. Melosh and Catriona D. Menzies and Joseph M. Moore and Luiz F. G. Morales and Chance Morgan and Hiroshi Mori and Andr{\'e} R. Niemeijer and Osamu Nishikawa and David John Prior and Katrina Sauer and Martha Kane Savage and Anja Maria Schleicher and Douglas Ray Schmitt and Norio Shigematsu and Sam taylor-offord and Damon A. H. Teagle and Harold J. Tobin and Robert Valdez and Konrad Cedd Weaver and Thomas Wiersberg and Jack Nicholas Williams and Nicholas D. Woodman and Martin Zimmer},
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300–450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10–15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and… 
Topographic and Faults Control of Hydrothermal Circulation Along Dormant Faults in an Orogen
Hydrothermal systems involving dormant faults within orogenic belts are rarely targeted for geothermal exploration, partly because of the complexity of the 3-D topography, the unknown permeability of
The Signi fi cance of Heat Transport by Shallow Fluid Flow at an Active Plate Boundary : The Southern Alps , New Zealand
Fluid flow can influence fault behavior. Here we quantify the role of groundwater heat advection in establishing the thermal structure of the Alpine Fault, a major tectonic boundary in southern New
The Significance of Heat Transport by Shallow Fluid Flow at an Active Plate Boundary: The Southern Alps, New Zealand
Fluid flow can influence fault behavior. Here we quantify the role of groundwater heat advection in establishing the thermal structure of the Alpine Fault, a major tectonic boundary in southern New
Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture‐Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging‐Wall Damage Zone
Fault rock assemblages reflect interaction between deformation, stress, temperature, fluid, and chemical regimes on distinct spatial and temporal scales at various positions in the crust. Here we
Thermal Alteration of Pyrite to Pyrrhotite During Earthquakes: New Evidence of Seismic Slip in the Rock Record
Seismic slip zones convey important information on earthquake energy dissipation and rupture processes. However, geological records of earthquakes along exhumed faults remain scarce. They can be
On the morphology and amplitude of 2D and 3D thermal anomalies induced by buoyancy-driven flow within and around fault zones
Abstract. In the first kilometres of the subsurface, temperature anomalies due to heat conduction processes rarely exceed 20–30 °C. When fault zones are sufficiently permeable, fluid flow may lead to
Penetration depth of meteoric water in orogenic geothermal systems
Warm springs emanating from deep-reaching faults in orogenic belts with high topography and orographic precipitation attest to circulation of meteoric water through crystalline bedrock. The depth to
Frictional properties and 3-D stress analysis of the southern Alpine Fault, New Zealand
Abstract New Zealand's Alpine Fault (AF) ruptures quasi-periodically in large-magnitude earthquakes. Paleoseismological evidence suggests that about half of all recognized AF earthquakes terminated


Drilling reveals fluid control on architecture and rupture of the Alpine fault, New Zealand
Rock damage during earthquake slip affects fluid migration within the fault core and the surrounding damage zone, and consequently coseismic and postseismic strength evolution. Results from the first
Permeability reduction in granite under hydrothermal conditions
The formation of impermeable fault seals between earthquake events is a feature of many models of earthquake generation, suggesting that earthquake recurrence may depend in part on the rate of
Fault zone models, heat flow, and the depth distribution of earthquakes in the continental crust of the United States
abstract Models of fault zones in continental crust, based on the analysis of rock deformation textures, suggest that the depth of seismic activity is controlled by the passage from a
Fault lubrication during earthquakes
It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved, according to a large set of published and unpublished experiments.
Structure and Composition of the Plate-Boundary Slip Zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake
Observations from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site.
Continuous Permeability Measurements Record Healing Inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone
Direct measurements of permeability inside a fault zone after a major earthquake reveal rapid healing of fractures and a process of punctuated recovery as healing and damage interact in the aftermath of a major earthquakes.
4.22 – The Role of Fault Zone Drilling
The objective of fault-zone drilling projects is to directly study the physical and chemical processes that control deformation and earthquake generation within active fault zones. An enormous amount
Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes
Thermal springs in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, originate through penetration of fluids into a thermal anomaly generated by rapid uplift and exhumation on the Alpine Fault. Copland hot spring
Low Coseismic Friction on the Tohoku-Oki Fault Determined from Temperature Measurements
The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T) installed a borehole temperature observatory 16 months after the March 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake across the fault where slip was ~50 meters near the trench, establishing a baseline for frictional resistance and stress during and following the earthquake.
Earthquake slip weakening and asperities explained by thermal pressurization
This work shows that the discrepancy between laboratory and seismological results can be resolved if thermal pressurization of the pore fluid is the slip-weakening mechanism, and indicates that a planar fault segment with an impermeable and narrow slip zone will become very unstable during slip and is likely to be the site of a seismic asperity.