Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation.

@article{Nyyssola2000ExtremeHS,
  title={Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation.},
  author={A Nyyssola and Janne Kerovuo and Pasi Kaukinen and Niklas von Weymarn and Tapani Reinikainen},
  journal={The Journal of biological chemistry},
  year={2000},
  volume={275 29},
  pages={22196-201}
}
Glycine betaine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress. Betaine acts also as a methyl group donor and has a number of important applications including its use as a feed additive. The known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are universal and very well characterized. A number of enzymes catalyzing the two-step oxidation of choline to betaine have been isolated. In this work we… CONTINUE READING