Extreme diving of beaked whales

  title={Extreme diving of beaked whales},
  author={Peter Lloyd Tyack and Mark Johnson and Natacha Aguilar de Soto and Albert Sturlese and Peter Teglberg Madsen},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  pages={4238 - 4253}
SUMMARY Sound-and-orientation recording tags (DTAGs) were used to study 10 beaked whales of two poorly known species, Ziphius cavirostris (Zc) and Mesoplodon densirostris (Md). Acoustic behaviour in the deep foraging dives performed by both species (Zc: 28 dives by seven individuals; Md: 16 dives by three individuals) shows that they hunt by echolocation in deep water between 222 and 1885 m, attempting to capture about 30 prey/dive. This food source is so deep that the average foraging dives… 

Diel variation in beaked whale diving behavior

The results suggest that so-called “bounce” dives do not serve a physiological function, although the slow ascents may, and suggests that beaked whales may spend less time in surface waters during the day to avoid injury.

Diving behaviour of Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

It is found that Cuvier's beaked whales spent significantly more time near the surface at night at night than other populations of this species, but with regional differences in depth, duration and inter-dive intervals.

Acoustic and foraging behavior of a Baird's beaked whale, Berardius bairdii, exposed to simulated sonar

The underwater behavior of a Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) from the first deployment of a multi-sensor acoustic tag is described, and the first experimental demonstration of a response to simulated sonar is demonstrated.

Extreme diving in mammals: first estimates of behavioural aerobic dive limits in Cuvier's beaked whales

It is suggested that Cuvier's beaked whales have low metabolic rates, high oxygen storage capacities and a high acid-buffering capacity to deal with the by-products of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, which enables them to extend dive durations and exploit their bathypelagic foraging habitats.

First Long-Term Behavioral Records from Cuvier’s Beaked Whales (Ziphius cavirostris) Reveal Record-Breaking Dives

While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters, including significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night.

The diving behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca): variations with ecological not physiological factors

Mammal-eating killer whales in this area appear to employ a strategy of physiological compromise, with smaller group members diving nearer their physiological limits and large-bodied males scaling down their physiological performance.

Crary bank: a deep foraging habitat for emperor penguins in the western Ross Sea

It is concluded that significant food resources are located over Crary Bank, accounting for the deep dives and success of birds from Cape Washington, the second largest, stable colony of emperor penguins known.

Diving behaviour of Cuvier's beaked whales exposed to two types of military sonar

Deep dives, shallow dives and surface intervals tended to become longer during MFAS use, with some variation associated with the total amount of overlapping MFAS during the behaviour, which contributed to a longer interval between deep dives, a proxy for foraging disruption in this species.

Deep-diving beaked whales dive together but forage apart

It is concluded that the close diving and vocal synchronization of beaked whale groups that quantitatively reduces predation risk has little impact on foraging performance.



Deep-diving foraging behaviour of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).

Similarity in foraging behaviour in the three regions and high diving efficiencies suggest that the success of sperm whales as mesopelagic predators is due in part to long-range echolocation of deep prey patches, efficient locomotion and a large aerobic capacity during diving.

Deep–diving behaviour of the northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus (Cetacea: Ziphiidae)

  • S. HookerR. W. Baird
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1999
Using suction–cup attached time–depth recorder/VHF radio tags, the first diving data is obtained on northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus), the first such data on any species within the family Ziphiidae, suggesting that these whales may make greater use of deep portions of the water column than any other mammal so far studied.

Beaked whales echolocate on prey

Beaked whales (Cetacea: Ziphiidea) of the genera Ziphius and Mesoplodon are so difficult to study that they are mostly known from strandings. How these elusive toothed whales use and react to sound

Biosonar performance of foraging beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris)

It is suggested that stable ICIs in the search and approach phases facilitate auditory scene analysis in a complex multi-target environment, and that a concomitant low click rate allows the whales to maintain high sound pressure outputs for prey detection and discrimination with a pneumatically driven, bi-modal sound generator.

Behaviour and dive times of Arnoux's beaked whales, Berardius arnuxii, at narrow leads in fast ice

Groups of the little-known Arnoux's beaked whale, Berardius arnuxii, were observed at narrow cracks or leads in sea ice near the Antarctic peninsula during the austral summer of 1992–1993, confirming B. arnUXii as one of the most accomplished mammalian divers, capable of swimming up to an estimated 7 km between breathing sites in seaice.

Deep Diving in Wild, Free-Ranging Beluga Whales, Delphinapterus leucas

Three adult female beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, were captured during summer in the Canadian high Arctic and equipped with satellite-linked radio transmitters that measured and recorded


We used small microprocessor-based, time-depth recorders to document the diving patterns of six adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) from San Miguel Island, California. The


Two sperm whales tagged with acoustic transponder tags were tracked by sonar during a cruise from 16 to 30 October 1991 in the southeast Caribbean west of Dominica Island. The whales dove to depths

Echolocation clicks of free-ranging Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris).

Qu quantitative characteristics of clicks from deep-diving Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are reported using a unique data set and the potential for passive detection is enhanced.

The Diving Behaviour of Adult Male and Female Southern Elephant Seals, Mirounga leonina (Pinnipedia : Phocidae)

The diving behaviour of southern elephant seals is related to the possible prey they exploit in the Southern Ocean.