Extrapolating from sequence—the 2009 H1N1 'swine' influenza virus

  title={Extrapolating from sequence—the 2009 H1N1 'swine' influenza virus},
  author={V. Soundararajan and Kannan Tharakaraman and Rahul Raman and S. Raguram and Zachary Shriver and Viswanathan Sasisekharan and Ram Sasisekharan},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
The recent incidence and spread in humans of the 'swine flu' influenza A virus has raised global concerns regarding its virulence and pandemic potential. The main cause of the so-called swine flu has been identified as human infection by influenza A viruses of a new H1N1 (hemagglutinin 1, neuraminidase 1) subtype, or '2009 H1N1 strain'. 

Analysis of influenza A viruses of subtype H1 from wild birds, turkeys and pigs in Germany reveals interspecies transmission events

Analysis of influenza A viruses of subtype H1 from wild birds, turkeys and pigs in Germany reveals interspecies transmission events.

Que sera, sera: evolution of the swine H1N1 influenza A virus

A new human influenza A virus (IAV) strain of swine-like origin emerged in Mexico and the United States in March and April of 2009 [1]. The virus disseminated globally with sufficient celerity that

Transmission and Pathogenesis of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses in Ferrets and Mice

Although results were variable, it seems that the 2009 A(H1N1) virus may be less efficiently transmitted by respiratory droplets in comparison to the highly transmissible seasonal H1n1 virus, suggesting that additional virus adaptation in mammals may be required before the authors see phenotypes observed in earlier pandemics.

Pathogenesis of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection and the implication on management

Information generated from cell lines, animal models, and clinical data analysis has provided greater understanding of the behavior of this virus and the associated host response, and will allow us to formulate scientifically sound and evidence-based management plans.

Influenza A viruses: new research developments

The value of surveillance and characterization of naturally occurring influenza viruses are discussed, and the impact that new developments in the laboratory have had on the authors' understanding of the host tropism and virulence of viruses are reviewed.

Reassortants of pandemic influenza A virus H1N1/2009 and endemic porcine HxN2 viruses emerge in swine populations in Germany.

The incursion of the human pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 (2009) into pig populations and its ongoing co-circulation with endemic swine influenza viruses (SIVs) has yielded distinct human-porcine reassortant virus lineages, giving rise to reassortants with as-yet-unknown biological properties and undetermined risks for public health.

Viral determinants of influenza A virus host range.

The current understanding of the mechanisms by which influenza viruses adapt to replicate efficiently in a new host is reviewed, predominantly focus on the influenza polymerase, which remains one of the least understood host-range barriers.

Structure and Receptor binding properties of a pandemic H1N1 virus hemagglutinin

The 3D-structure of the major surface viral antigen from the recent H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (A/Darwin/2001/2009) was determined and reveals a strict preference for human-type receptors.

Phylogenetic Analysis of HA and NA Genes of Swine Influenza Viruses in Serbia in 2016-2018

The objectives of this research were to determine the presence of the influenza A virus in nasal and tracheobronchial swabs and lung tissue samples of ill and dead pigs on commercial farms, to determine circulating subtypes and characterize them through the phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes.

A Single Amino Acid in the HA of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Affects Cell Tropism in Human Airway Epithelium, but Not Transmission in Ferrets

Investigation of the effect of residue 227 in HA on cell tropism and transmission of pH1N1 2009 finds this residue may alter the sialic acid conformer binding preference of the HA and alter the ability of the virus to transmit between humans.



Pandemic Potential of a Strain of Influenza A (H1N1): Early Findings

Transmissibility is substantially higher than that of seasonal flu, and comparable with lower estimates of R0 obtained from previous influenza pandemics, by analyzing the outbreak in Mexico, early data on international spread, and viral genetic diversity, which makes an early assessment of transmissibility and severity.

Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus

Reverse genetics was used to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence, and confirmed that the coordinated expression of the 1918 virus genes most certainly confers the unique high-virulence phenotype observed with this pandemicirus.

Single gene reassortants identify a critical role for PB1, HA, and NA in the high virulence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus

The 1918 virus virulence observed in mice correlated with the ability of 1918 recombinant viruses to replicate efficiently in human airway cells, highlighting the importance of the 1918 HA, NA, and PB1 genes for optimal virus replication and virulence of this pandemic strain.

A Two-Amino Acid Change in the Hemagglutinin of the 1918 Influenza Virus Abolishes Transmission

These findings confirm an essential role of hemagglutinin receptor specificity for the transmission of influenza viruses among mammals and suggest that a predominant human α-2,6 sialic acid binding preference is essential for optimal transmission of this pandemic virus.

The Structure and Receptor Binding Properties of the 1918 Influenza Hemagglutinin

The crystal structures of the HA from the 1918 virus and two closelyrelated HAs in complex with receptor analogs are determined, explaining how the 1918 HA, while retaining receptor binding site amino acids characteristic of an avian precursor HA, is able to bind human receptors and how the virus was able to spread in the human population.

Crystal structures of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus neuraminidase mutants

The enzymatic properties and crystal structures of neuraminidase mutants from H5N1-infected patients are reported that explain the molecular basis of resistance and indicate that it would be prudent for pandemic stockpiles of oseltamivir to be augmented by additional antiviral drugs, including zanamivIR.

Quantitative biochemical rationale for differences in transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza A viruses

The dramatic lower binding affinity of NY18 to long α2-6 glycans, as against a mixedα2-3/6 binding, correlates with its inefficient transmission, and this study establishes a quantitative biochemical correlate for influenza A virus transmission.

Influenza A virus neuraminidase: regions of the protein potentially involved in virus-host interactions.

Phylogenetically informative amino acid positions (PIPs) were identified in influenza A neuraminidases of subtypes N1 and N2, which represent additional antigenic sites or may be involved in other aspects of virus-host biology.

Glycan topology determines human adaptation of avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin

An integrated biochemical, analytical and data mining approach demonstrates that HAs from the human-adapted H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, but not H5N1 (bird flu) viruses, specifically bind to long α2-6 sialylated glycans with this topology, which could explain why H 5N1 viruses have not yet gained a foothold in the human population.

Infections with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus in the United States.

Oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) viruses circulated widely in the United States during the 2007-2008 influenza season, appeared to be unrelated to oseltAMivir use, and appeared to cause illness similar to oselstamIVir-susceptible A( H1N 1) viruses.