Extrafollicular antibody responses

  title={Extrafollicular antibody responses},
  author={Ian C. M. Maclennan and Kai-Michael Toellner and Adam F. Cunningham and Karine Serre and Daniel Man-yuen Sze and Elina I. Zu{\~n}iga and Matthew C. Cook and Carola G. Vinuesa},
  journal={Immunological Reviews},
Summary:  In adaptive antibody responses, B cells are induced to grow either in follicles where they form germinal centers or in extrafollicular foci as plasmablasts. Extrafollicular growth typically occurs in the medullary cords of lymph nodes and in foci in the red pulp of the spleen. It is not a feature of secondary lymphoid tissue associated with the internal epithelia of the body. All types of naïve and memory B cells can be recruited into extrafollicular responses. These responses are… 

Extrafollicular proliferation of B cells in the absence of follicular hyperplasia: a distinct reaction pattern in lymph nodes correlated with primary or recall type responses

The aim of this study was to extensively analyse the expression of surface molecules and transcription factors in four cases ofExtrafollicular activation of B cells in human lymph nodes, comparing them with follicular B cells and medullary cord plasma cells.

Autoreactive B cells get activated in extrafollicular sites

This issue of the European Journal of Immunology, a new and very useful model is presented that induces activation and hypermutation of autoreactive B cells upon injection of chromatin‐containing immune complexes.

Regulation of extrafollicular immunoglobulin class switch recombination

TheNFκB family signalling molecules C-REL and NFκB1 have been shown to be required for the induction of IRF4 protein in B cells following stimulation, but it is shown that these signalling molecules are not necessary to induce the early rapid intermediate level expression of IRf4, and extrafollicular expression of AID and CSR occur normally when they are absent.

ICOS-dependent extrafollicular helper T cells elicit IgG production via IL-21 in systemic autoimmunity

An anatomically distinct extrafollicular population of cells that regulates plasma cell differentiation in chronic autoimmunity is defined, indicating that specialized humoral effector T cells akin to TFH cells can occur outside the follicle.

ResponsesRapid, Switched Antibody-Forming Cell Rheumatoid Factor B Cell Memory Leads to

Using this model system, it is shown that the EF response generated persistent and functional MBCs that share some, but not all, of the characteristics of traditional MBCS, which could play a role in chronic or chronic autoimmune disease.

Regulatory T Cells in B Cell Follicles

This review discusses the current knowledge related to the role of regulatory T cells in the B cell follicle and reveals specialized subsets of T cells necessary for the control of B cell responses in the follicle.

Impaired Germinal Center Responses and Suppression of Local IgG Production during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

The data provide a mechanism whereby an intracellular bacterial infection can compromise local immunity to coinfecting pathogens or antigenic challenge, and organized GCs and phenotypically defined splenic GC B cells were found in lymph nodes, but not spleens.

Antigen presentation to B cells

A number of recent imaging studies are discussed that have provided new insights into the variety of mechanisms by which B-cell activation is initiated in the lymph node in vivo.



Viral Superantigen Drives Extrafollicular and Follicular B Cell Differentiation Leading to Virus-specific Antibody Production

The results indicate that this viral superantigen, when expressed by professional antigen-presenting cells, drives extrafollicular and follicular B cell differentiation leading to virus-specific antibody production.

A dual origin for IgA plasma cells in the murine small intestine.

Additional data is provided, both from transfer studies with sorted B-l cells and from analysis of JLI,K transgenic mice, to support the hypothesis that B- l cells can contribute to the IgA response of the gut.

Newly produced virgin B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid organs but their capacity to enter follicles is restricted

The migration of recirculating B cells was compared with that of newly produced virgin B cells following passive cell transfer between congenic strains of rats differing in their kappa immunoglobulin

The bone marrow: the major source of serum immunoglobulins, but still a neglected site of antibody formation.

Apparently, antibody formation is regulated in such a way that peripheral lymphoid tissues respond rapidly, but only for a short period, whereas the BM response starts slowly, but takes care of a long-lasting massive production of antibodies to antigens which repeatedly challenge the organism.

Germinal centers.

Germinal centers develop in the B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues during T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses and are probably the source of plasma cells and memory cells required to maintain long-term antibody production and memory after the first 3 weeks of Tcell-dependent antibody responses.

Evolution of Autoantibody Responses via Somatic Hypermutation Outside of Germinal Centers

This work found that splenic autoreactive B cells in autoimmune MRL proliferated and underwent active somatic hypermutation at the T zone–red pulp border rather than in GCs, implicate this region as an important site for hypermutations and the loss of B cell self-tolerance.

Mechanism of antigen-driven selection in germinal centres

It is found that, on culture, centrocytes isolated from human tonsil kill themselves within a few hours by apoptosis, not a feature of other tonsillar B cells.

Human marginal-zone B cells.

IgMhighCD21high lymphocytes enriched in the splenic marginal zone generate effector cells more rapidly than the bulk of follicular B cells.

Findings indicate a functional heterogeneity within splenic mature B lymphocytes, with marginal zone B cells having the capacity to generate effector cells in early stages of the immune response against particulate Ags scavenged efficiently in this special anatomical site.