Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R causes reductions in astrocytic ATP and glutathione levels compromising the antioxidant reservoir.

@article{Ferrucci2012ExtracellularHI,
  title={Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R causes reductions in astrocytic ATP and glutathione levels compromising the antioxidant reservoir.},
  author={Adriano Ferrucci and Michael R Nonnemacher and {\'E}ric A Cohen and Brian Wigdahl},
  journal={Virus research},
  year={2012},
  volume={167 2},
  pages={
          358-69
        }
}
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) often display neurological complications in late stage disease and increased viral loads directly correlated with higher concentrations of extracellular HIV-1 viral protein r (Vpr) in the blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Additionally, HIV-1-infected patients with a low CD4+ T-lymphocyte count displayed lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), the main intracellular antioxidant molecule, and lower level of survival… CONTINUE READING
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