Extracellular Events Induced by γ‐Hydroxybutyrate in Striatum: A Microdialysis Study

  title={Extracellular Events Induced by $\gamma$‐Hydroxybutyrate in Striatum: A Microdialysis Study},
  author={Viviane Hechler and Serge Gobaille and Jean-Jacques Bourguignon and Michel Maitre},
  journal={Journal of Neurochemistry},
Abstract: The modification of dopamine release and accumulation induced by γ‐hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was studied using both striatal slices and in vivo microdialysis of caudate‐putamen. GHB inhibited dopamine release for ∼5–10 min in vitro, and this was associated with an accumulation of dopamine in the tissue. Subsequently, there was an increase in dopamine release. In the microdialysis experiments, low doses of GHB inhibited dopamine release, whereas higher doses strongly increased release; the… 

Pharmacologically induced cessation of burst activity in nigral dopamine neurons: Significance for the terminal dopamine efflux

The results of this combined electrophysiological and microdialysis study support the idea that firing pattern may be an important physiological modulatory mechanism for the release of terminal neurotransmitter.

γ-Hydroxybutyrate/Sodium Oxybate

Sodium oxybate has been observed to modulate sleep in nonclinical study participants, and sleep and wakefulness in clinical populations, including groups with insomnia, fibromyalgia and narcolepsy, and evidence suggests a role for GHB as a neuromodulator/neurotransmitter.

Does γ-Hydroxybutyrate Inhibit or Stimulate Central da Release?

Following a critical review of the literature, the present report suggests that GHB does inhibit rather than stimulate presynaptic DA release in consonance with its behavioral and pharmacological properties.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate is a GABAB receptor agonist that increases a potassium conductance in rat ventral tegmental dopamine neurons.

Electrophysiological recordings suggest that GHB is an agonist at gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and would be expected to inhibit DA release by causing K+-dependent membrane hyperpolarization.



Release of monoamines from the striatum and hypothalamus: Effect of γ‐hydroxybutyrate

The ability of γ‐hydroxybutyrate to antagonize the K+‐induced release of monoamines from brain slices does not appear to be unique to the release of newly synthesized dopamine from the striatum.

Effect of γ‐hydroxybutyrate on the release of monoamines from the rat striatum

The ability of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to antagonize only the K + -induced release of newly formed DA may explain why this agent causes a rapid and selective increase in brain dopamine.

γ‐Hydroxybutyrate Stimulation of the Formation of Cyclic GMP and Inositol Phosphates in Rat Hippocampal Slices

The results seems to indicate that, like many substances inducing epileptic phenomena, GHB provokes neuronal depolarization in hippocampus which is accompanied by formation of cyclic GMP and inositol phosphates.


Abstract— Gamma‐hydroxybutyrate administration produces a marked selective increase of brain dopamine in different animal species. Following γ‐hydroxybutyrate administration, dopamine accumulated in

Morphine and δ-opiate agonists locally stimulate in vivo dopamine release in cat caudate nucleus

In vivo the local effects of opiates on the release of DA in the cat caudate nucleus are examined and it is found that both morphine and more markedly, D-Ala2-Met-enkephalinamide stimulate DA release.

A High‐Affinity, Na+‐Dependent Uptake System for γ‐Hydroxybutyrate in Membrane Vesicles Prepared from Rat Brain

A series of related compounds, including aryl‐or alkyl‐derivatives, has been examined for ability to inhibit GHB uptake, indicative of its possible physiological role and also of the existence of a high‐affinity uptake system for GHB.

Conversion of γ‐Hydroxybutyrate to γ‐Aminobutyrate In Vitro

The kinetic characteristics of the multienzyme system involved in GHB degradation studied in vitro are compatible with the production of GABA in vivo, demonstrating that the succinate‐linked pathway is not involved in the generation of GABA.

A specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor ligand possesses both antagonistic and anticonvulsant properties.

The results suggest that NCS-382 may represent a harbinger for a new class of anticonvulsant drugs that most probably act by modifying the endogenous GHB system.

Stimulation of dopamine synthesis in caudate nucleus by intrastriatal enkephalins and antagonism by naloxone.

The results indicate that enkephalins stimulate dopamine synthesis by an action on opioid receptors localized on dopaminergic nerve terminals localized on dopamine nerve terminals.