Extra-pair young despite strong pair bonds in the European Nuthatch (Sitta europaea)

@article{Segelbacher2004ExtrapairYD,
  title={Extra-pair young despite strong pair bonds in the European Nuthatch (Sitta europaea)},
  author={G. Segelbacher and D. Kabisch and Michael J. Stauss and J. Tomiuk},
  journal={Journal of Ornithology},
  year={2004},
  volume={146},
  pages={99-102}
}
We choose the European Nuthatch (Sitta europaea), an extremely socially monogamous passerine species, to investigate the breeding biology and frequency of extra-pair activities of females. Breeding individuals live in strong pair bonds for their total life and defend their territory all year round. As a consequence of these narrow social bonds, nuthatches have to date been considered extremely sexually monogamous. Our genetic study, however, reveals a minimum of 10% of extra-pair young in 188… Expand

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