Extra- and intrathoracic access.

Abstract

The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are… (More)
DOI: 10.5301/jva.5000231

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