Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history

@article{Chan2017ExtinctionOP,
  title={Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history},
  author={C K Jonas Chan and Justin A. Harris},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},
  year={2017},
  volume={141},
  pages={19-25}
}

Pavlovian conditioning under partial reinforcement: The effects of nonreinforced trials versus cumulative conditioned stimulus duration.

TLDR
3 experiments using within-subject designs that tested trial-based and time-accumulation accounts of the acquisition of conditioned responding using magazine approach conditioning in rats found that responding was affected by the total (cumulative) duration of exposure to the CS without the US rather than the number of trials on which the CS occurred without theUS.

The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: The Proportion of Trials Reinforced During Conditioning Predicts the Number of Trials to Extinction

TLDR
Results provide support for trial-based accounts of extinction, whereby rats learn about the expected number of trials per reinforcer, and extinction depends on the number of expected reinforcers that have been omitted rather than on thenumber of extinction trials per se.

The Partial-Reinforcement Extinction Effect Does Not Result From Reduced Sensitivity to Nonreinforcement

TLDR
Conference with a PRf schedule slows subsequent extinction of that CS but does not affect learning about the nonreinforcement of other stimuli presented at the same time, concluding that the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect is not attributable to a decrease in sensitivity to nonreInforcement following presentation of aPRf CS.

Delay of Reinforcement Versus Rate of Reinforcement in Pavlovian Conditioning

TLDR
The results demonstrate that although the CS duration effect is not simply a consequence of timing of conditioned responses, it is dependent on the delay of reinforcement, providing a challenge to current associative and nonassociative, time-accumulation models of learning.

The partial reinforcement extinction effect depends on learning about nonreinforced trials rather than reinforcement rate.

TLDR
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect depends on learning about nonreinforced trials during partial reinforcement and is not because of any difference in per-trial probability of reinforcement.

Behavioral and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Pavlovian and Instrumental Extinction Learning.

This article reviews the behavioral neuroscience of extinction, the phenomenon in which a behavior that has been acquired through Pavlovian or instrumental (operant) learning decreases in strength

Rewards interact with repetition‐dependent learning to enhance long‐term retention of motor memories

TLDR
The hypothesis that performance‐contingent monetary rewards potentiate repetition‐dependent forms of learning, as induced by extensive practice at asymptote, to enhance long‐term retention of motor memories is tested and suggests that the influence of rewards on extensive practice and long-term retention is nonlinear.

Learned Biases in the Processing of Outcomes: A Brief Review of the Outcome Predictability Effect

TLDR
This article reviews the new findings within a broader associative literature that has previously investigated how conditioning can modify the effectiveness of outcome events to motivate new learning and identifies novel questions brought into focus by the outcome predictability effect.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

TLDR
It is concluded that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate.

Time, Trials, and Extinction

TLDR
There was no difference in rate of extinction between CSs that were matched on number of trials but differed on the duration of each trial, indicating that duration of exposure has no effect on extinction.

Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

TLDR
The close agreement between the findings and the Matching Law is discussed and their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories of conditioning (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000).

A partial reinforcement extinction effect despite equal rates of reinforcement during Pavlovian conditioning.

TLDR
The results demonstrate that the partial reinforcement extinction effect is a consequence of the nonreinforced trials with the CS, rather than the rate at which the unconditioned stimulus is delivered during the CS.

Temporal properties of fear extinction--does time matter?

TLDR
A human differential fear conditioning study in which CR was measured with the fear-potentiated startle response found that many CS trials with a duration shorter than the acquisition CS duration facilitated within-session extinction, but this effect did not predict the recovery of fear.

Temporal specificity of extinction in autoshaping.

TLDR
Results suggest that the cessation of responding during an extinction session is controlled by generalization of excitation between the training and extinction CSs and by the number of nonreinforced CS presentations.

Temporally specific extinction of conditioned responses in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane preparation.

TLDR
This research reveals that elimination of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response occurred during continuous CS-US pairings, supporting real-time models of conditioning that segment the CS into microstimuli while challenging theories that rely on contextual control, US representations, CS processing, and response inhibition.

Timed excitatory conditioning under zero and negative contingencies.

TLDR
The results suggest that "when" trumps "whether," challenging the received view that a positive CS-US contingency is necessary for successful conditioning.

Changes in the distribution of response rates across the CS-US interval: Evidence that responding switches between two distinct states.

  • Justin A. Harris
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition
  • 2015
TLDR
The results support accounts describing response timing as an abrupt change from low to high responding during the CS, but also provide evidence for a continuous change in conditioning strength across the duration of the CS.