Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history

@article{Chan2017ExtinctionOP,
  title={Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history},
  author={C K Jonas Chan and Justin A. Harris},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},
  year={2017},
  volume={141},
  pages={19-25}
}
Pavlovian conditioning is sensitive to the temporal relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). This has motivated models that describe learning as a process that continuously updates associative strength during the trial or specifically encodes the CS-US interval. These models predict that extinction of responding is also continuous, such that response loss is proportional to the cumulative duration of exposure to the CS without the US. We review… Expand
Pavlovian conditioning under partial reinforcement: The effects of nonreinforced trials versus cumulative conditioned stimulus duration.
TLDR
3 experiments using within-subject designs that tested trial-based and time-accumulation accounts of the acquisition of conditioned responding using magazine approach conditioning in rats found that responding was affected by the total (cumulative) duration of exposure to the CS without the US rather than the number of trials on which the CS occurred without theUS. Expand
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: The Proportion of Trials Reinforced During Conditioning Predicts the Number of Trials to Extinction
TLDR
Results provide support for trial-based accounts of extinction, whereby rats learn about the expected number of trials per reinforcer, and extinction depends on the number of expected reinforcers that have been omitted rather than on thenumber of extinction trials per se. Expand
The Partial-Reinforcement Extinction Effect Does Not Result From Reduced Sensitivity to Nonreinforcement
TLDR
Conference with a PRf schedule slows subsequent extinction of that CS but does not affect learning about the nonreinforcement of other stimuli presented at the same time, concluding that the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect is not attributable to a decrease in sensitivity to nonreInforcement following presentation of aPRf CS. Expand
The Probability of Reinforcement Per Trial Affects Posttrial Responding and Subsequent Extinction but Not Within-Trial Responding
TLDR
It is concluded that reinforcement rate per second controls rats’ acquisition of responding during the CS, but at the same time, rats also learn specifically about the probability of reinforcement per trial. Expand
Delay of Reinforcement Versus Rate of Reinforcement in Pavlovian Conditioning
TLDR
The results demonstrate that although the CS duration effect is not simply a consequence of timing of conditioned responses, it is dependent on the delay of reinforcement, providing a challenge to current associative and nonassociative, time-accumulation models of learning. Expand
The partial reinforcement extinction effect depends on learning about nonreinforced trials rather than reinforcement rate.
TLDR
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect depends on learning about nonreinforced trials during partial reinforcement and is not because of any difference in per-trial probability of reinforcement. Expand
Behavioral and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Pavlovian and Instrumental Extinction Learning.
This article reviews the behavioral neuroscience of extinction, the phenomenon in which a behavior that has been acquired through Pavlovian or instrumental (operant) learning decreases in strengthExpand
Rewards interact with repetition‐dependent learning to enhance long‐term retention of motor memories
TLDR
The hypothesis that performance‐contingent monetary rewards potentiate repetition‐dependent forms of learning, as induced by extensive practice at asymptote, to enhance long‐term retention of motor memories is tested and suggests that the influence of rewards on extensive practice and long-term retention is nonlinear. Expand
Adaptive behaviour under conflict: Deconstructing extinction, reversal, and active avoidance learning
TLDR
The behavioural and brain mechanisms of responding under conflict are reviewed by focusing on three popular behavioural procedures: extinction, reversal learning, and active avoidance, noting that each of these phenomena relies on somewhat overlapping neural circuits, suggesting that such circuits may be critical for the general ability to respond appropriately under conflict. Expand
Negative reinforcement rate and persistent avoidance following response-prevention extinction.
TLDR
Investigating the persistence of avoidance following response-prevention extinction (RPE) when prior avoidance had been differentially effective at cancelling shock found persistence was related to prior negative reinforcement rate, with higher rates more resistant to extinction. Expand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.
TLDR
It is concluded that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. Expand
Separation of time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect
TLDR
Two appetitive conditioning experiments with rats examined time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) and found evidence that the animal responded according to the ratio of time accumulated during the CS in extinction over the time in the CS expected before the reinforcer. Expand
Time, Trials, and Extinction
TLDR
There was no difference in rate of extinction between CSs that were matched on number of trials but differed on the duration of each trial, indicating that duration of exposure has no effect on extinction. Expand
Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.
TLDR
The close agreement between the findings and the Matching Law is discussed and their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories of conditioning (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000). Expand
A partial reinforcement extinction effect despite equal rates of reinforcement during Pavlovian conditioning.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the partial reinforcement extinction effect is a consequence of the nonreinforced trials with the CS, rather than the rate at which the unconditioned stimulus is delivered during the CS. Expand
Temporal properties of fear extinction--does time matter?
TLDR
A human differential fear conditioning study in which CR was measured with the fear-potentiated startle response found that many CS trials with a duration shorter than the acquisition CS duration facilitated within-session extinction, but this effect did not predict the recovery of fear. Expand
Temporal specificity of extinction in autoshaping.
TLDR
Results suggest that the cessation of responding during an extinction session is controlled by generalization of excitation between the training and extinction CSs and by the number of nonreinforced CS presentations. Expand
Temporally specific extinction of conditioned responses in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane preparation.
TLDR
This research reveals that elimination of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response occurred during continuous CS-US pairings, supporting real-time models of conditioning that segment the CS into microstimuli while challenging theories that rely on contextual control, US representations, CS processing, and response inhibition. Expand
Timed excitatory conditioning under zero and negative contingencies.
TLDR
The results suggest that "when" trumps "whether," challenging the received view that a positive CS-US contingency is necessary for successful conditioning. Expand
Changes in the distribution of response rates across the CS-US interval: Evidence that responding switches between two distinct states.
  • Justin A. Harris
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition
  • 2015
TLDR
The results support accounts describing response timing as an abrupt change from low to high responding during the CS, but also provide evidence for a continuous change in conditioning strength across the duration of the CS. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...