Extinction and quiescence in marine animal genera

  title={Extinction and quiescence in marine animal genera},
  author={Michael Foote},
  • M. Foote
  • Published in Paleobiology 1 May 2007
  • Geography, Environmental Science
Abstract If last appearances of marine animal genera are taken as reasonable proxies for true extinctions, then there is appreciable global extinction in every stage of the Phanerozoic. If, instead, backsmearing of extinctions by incomplete sampling is explicitly taken into consideration, a different view of extinction emerges, in which the pattern of extinction is much more volatile and in which quiescent time spans—with little or no global extinction for several million years—are punctuated… 

Symmetric waxing and waning of marine invertebrate genera

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science
  • 2007
Post-PaleozoicGenera show less of a rise and fall on average and tend to be less symmetrical than do Paleozoic genera, consistent with the expected effects of simply increasing the magnitude of extinction.

Five hundred million years of extinction and recovery: a phanerozoic survey of large‐scale diversity patterns in fishes

A broad overview of the Phanerozoic history of fish diversity is provided, placing a special emphasis on intervals of turnover, evolutionary radiation, and extinction.

The Red Queen revisited: reevaluating the age selectivity of Phanerozoic marine genus extinctions

Multiple logistic regression demonstrates that the association of extinction risk with genus age is not adequately explained by species richness or geographic range: there is a residual association between age and extinction risk even when range and richness effects are accounted for.

Splash-like marine biodiversity additions after the cambrian

Some Phanerozoic biotic radiations in the marine realm led to marine biodiversity additions, i.e., increases in the global number of genera to unprecedented levels. Each of the two alternative

Origin and Evolution of Regional Biotas: A Deep-Time Perspective

Improvements in high-resolution stratigraphic interpretation, numerical modeling of the fossil record, and the application of phylogenetic methods to extinct groups will lead to advances in understanding of the origin and evolution of regional biotas and whether or not diversity has limits over geologic time.

Adjusting global extinction rates to account for taxonomic susceptibility

An inverse correlation between extinction rate within substages and the evenness of diversity of major taxonomic groups is found, but further analyses indicate that low evenness itself does not cause high rates of extinction.

Alpha diversity of Phanerozoic marine communities positively correlates with longevity of genera

  • A. Markov
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2009
The results generally confirm the hypothesis that higher alpha diversity enhances longevity of genera, and are robust to some possible sources of errors in L and D estimation.

End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates

  • L. SallanM. Coates
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2010
It is shown that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide.

Macroevolutionary drivers of extinction and quantitative stratigraphy of graptolites

—Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from

Possible pitfalls in the procedure for paleobiodiversity-dynamics analysis

The changes in the diversity of specific taxa during certain parts of the geological past (paleobiodiversity dynamics) can, in principle, be established by counting the number of the fossil taxa



Origination and Extinction through the Phanerozoic: A New Approach

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    The Journal of Geology
  • 2003
Observed first and last appearances of marine animal and microfossil genera in a way that explicitly takes incompleteness and its variation into consideration allows estimates of true rates of origination and extinction throughout the Phanerozoic.


A review of different methods of tabulating data from the Sepkoski database reveals 18 intervals during the Phanerozoic have peaks of both magnitude and rate of extinction that appear in each tabulating scheme, demonstrating that mass extinctions are not a homogeneous group of events.

Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record

A new compilation of fossil data on invertebrate and vertebrate families indicates that four mass extinctions in the marine realm are statistically distinct from background extinction levels. These

Genus extinction, origination, and the durations of sedimentary hiatuses

  • S. Peters
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2006
Abstract Short-term variations in rates of taxonomic extinction and origination in the fossil record may be the result of true changes in rates of turnover, variable rates of fossil preservation, or

A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

  • D. Raup
  • Environmental Science, Geology
  • 1991
A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of

Rapid recovery from the Late Ordovician mass extinction.

  • A. KrugM. Patzkowsky
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2004
It is found that marine benthic diversity in Laurentia recovered to preextinction levels within 5 million years, which is nearly 15 million years sooner than suggested by global compilations.

Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals.

  • S. Peters
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
This work compares the rates of expansion and truncation of preserved marine sedimentary basins to rates of origination and extinction among Phanerozoic marine animal genera and suggests that the processes responsible for producing variability in the sedimentary rock record, such as plate tectonics and sea-level change, may have been dominant and consistent macroevolutionary forces throughout the Phanrozoic.

Periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past.

  • D. RaupJ. Sepkoski
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1984
The temporal distribution of the major extinctions over the past 250 million years has been investigated statistically using various forms of time series analysis and contains 12 extinction events that show a statistically significant periodicity.

Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record.

It is found that in general the biosphere's response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived, and changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval.