External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone

  title={External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone},
  author={Steve H Faulkner and Richard A Ferguson and Simon G. Hodder and George Havenith},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
PurposeHaving previously shown the use of passive external heating between warm-up completion and sprint cycling to have had a positive effect on muscle temperature (Tm) and maximal sprint performance, we sought to determine whether adding passive heating during active warm up was of further benefit.MethodsTen trained male cyclists completed a standardised 15 min sprint based warm-up on a cycle ergometer, followed by 30 min passive recovery before completing a 30 s maximal sprint test. Warm up… 
Post-warm-up muscle temperature maintenance: blood flow contribution and external heating optimisation
Optimising the external heating procedure and increasing heating temperature of only 3 °C successfully maintained and even increased Tmvl, demonstrating that heating temperature is the major determinant of post-warm-up TmVL cooling in this application.
External heating garments used post-warm-up improve upper body power and elite sprint swimming performance
External heating of the upper body between completion of the warm-up and performance through the utilization of an electrically heated jacket improves plyometric press-up power output and force production, as well as sprint swimming performance in males.
Local Passive Warming Administered During the Transition Phase Impairs Subsequent Isokinetic Exercise Performance
Local passive warming administered during the transition phase was not an appropriate strategy for boosting the performance of subsequent isokinetic exercises, and the application of passive warming should be carefully chosen before exercise commences.
Passive heating following the prematch warm‐up in soccer: examining the time‐course of changes in muscle temperature and contractile function
The soccer specific warm‐up elevated muscle temperature and was associated with concomitant increases of between 20% and 30% in voluntary rate of torque development, which seems explained by elevations in rate‐dependent measures of intrinsic muscle contractile function.
Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications
Potential physiological mechanisms underpinning warm-ups and how they can affect subsequent exercise performance are identified, and recommendations for warm-up strategy design for specific individual and team sports are provided.
Passive Heat Maintenance After an Initial Warm-up Improves High-Intensity Activity During an Interchange Rugby League Movement Simulation Protocol.
There are small to large increases in high-intensity activity performed during a playing bout when rugby players wear a PHM garment after a warm-up, and rugby players should consider PHM during extended periods between awarm-up and starting a match.
The effects of lower body passive heating combined with mixed-method cooling during half-time on second-half intermittent sprint performance in the heat
The maintenance of Tes-Mus following half-time was detrimental to prolonged intermittent sprint performance in the heat, even when used together with cooling.
Improved 2000-m Rowing Performance in a Cool Environment With an External Heating Garment.
The data demonstrate that an upper-body external heating garment worn following a warm-up can improve rowing performance in a cool environment.
The use of optimised heating trousers and the role of the blood flow on the reduction in muscle temperature post warm up
This study aimed to optimise the heating procedure, in order to eliminate the reduction in Tm post-warm up, and to understand the reason of this reduction, the effect of the blood flow in the cooling process of the leg was studied.


Reducing muscle temperature drop after warm-up improves sprint cycling performance.
Passive heating of the thighs between warm-up completion and performance execution using pants incorporating electrically heated pads can attenuate the decline in Tm and improve sprint cycling performance.
Effect of muscle temperature on leg extension force and short-term power output in humans
  • A. Sargeant
  • Biology
    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
  • 2004
Two subjects performed isokinetic cycling at three different pedalling rates demonstrating that the magnitude of the temperature effect was velocity dependent: At the slowest pedalling rate the effect of warming the muscle was to increase PPmax by ∼2% per ‡ C but at the highest speed this increased to ∼10% per‡ C.
Effects of active warm-up and diurnal increase in temperature on muscular power.
The beneficial effect of an active warm-up (AWU) can be combined with that of the diurnal increase in central temperature to improve muscular power.
Tissue temperature transients in resting contra-lateral leg muscle tissue during isolated knee extension.
Results suggest that during isolated muscle activity, convective heat transfer by the blood to non-active muscle tissue may have a significant role in maintaining resting core temperature.
Muscle temperature transients before, during, and after exercise measured using an intramuscular multisensor probe.
It is suggested that the transfer of residual heat from previously active musculature may contribute to the sustained elevation in postexercise T(es), which was measured as an index of core temperature.
Body Temperature and Capacity for Work
Summary. It is a well established fact that the body temperature increases during muscular exercise, and that the increase is regulated (NIELSEN, 1938). It was the purpose of this paper to study the
Delayed recovery of muscle pH after short duration, high intensity exercise in malignant hyperthermia susceptible subjects.
There is abnormal recovery of muscle pH after short-duration, high-intensity exercise in MHS subjects, and there was no difference in muscle temperature, venous pH or venous lactate concentrations between the two groups.
Tissue temperatures and whole-animal oxygen consumption after exercise.
The hypothesis that a sizable portion of postexercise 02 consumption is due to increased tissue temperatures is substantiated and the classical definition of 02 debt requires revision.
Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during maximal power output development in humans.
The greater power output obtained with passive heating was achieved through an elevated rate of anaerobic ATP turnover and MFCV, possibly due to a greater effect of temperature on power production of fibers, with a predominance of myosin heavy chain IIA at the contraction frequencies reached.