External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.


External genital warts (EGWs) are visible warts that occur in the perigenital and perianal regions. They are due primarily to non-oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, usually types 6 and 11. Physical examination assisted by bright light and magnification is the recommended approach for primary diagnosis. Biopsy is indicated when EGWs are fixed to underlying structures or discolored or when standard therapies are not effective. Recurrences are common, and there is no single treatment that is superior to others. Among women with atypical squamous cells, molecular HPV testing may be useful in determining who should be referred for colposcopy. Condoms may provide some protection against HPV-related diseases and thus are recommended in new sexual relationships and when partnerships are not mutually monogamous. Because the efficacy of cesarean section in preventing vertical transmission of HPV infection from women with EGWs to their progeny has not been proved, it is not recommended.

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@article{Wiley2002ExternalGW, title={External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.}, author={Dorothy JoAnn Wiley and John M . Douglas and Karl R. Beutner and Tom Cox and Kenneth H. Fife and Anna-Barbara Moscicki and Lynne Fukumoto}, journal={Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America}, year={2002}, volume={35 Suppl 2}, pages={S210-24} }