External fixation of the lumbar spine in a canine model.


OBJECTIVE To compare the mechanical properties of two types of external skeletal fixation of the lumbar spine with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/Steinmann pin fixation in a canine unstable spine model. STUDY DESIGN Cadaver study. SAMPLE POPULATION Lumbar spines of 17 mature large-breed dogs. METHODS Spine stiffness (N-m/deg) in flexion, extension, and… (More)


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