External fixation of the calcaneus and talus: an anatomical study for safe pin insertion.

@article{Santi1996ExternalFO,
  title={External fixation of the calcaneus and talus: an anatomical study for safe pin insertion.},
  author={Maria Margherita de Santi and Michael J. Botte},
  journal={Journal of orthopaedic trauma},
  year={1996},
  volume={10 7},
  pages={487-91}
}
Fifteen fresh-frozen adult cadaver feet were dissected to investigate areas in the hindfoot where external fixation pins could be safely inserted with the least risk to underlying nerves, vessels, and tendons. Using palpable anatomic landmarks, four relative "safe zones" on the calcaneus and talus were delineated. These included an area on the medial calcaneus, the medial talus, the lateral calcaneus, and the lateral talus. The medial calcaneal safe zone was a large, easily definable… CONTINUE READING