Extermination of the Joyas: Gendercide in Spanish California

  title={Extermination of the Joyas: Gendercide in Spanish California},
  author={Deborah A. Miranda},
  journal={GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies},
  pages={253 - 284}
  • Deborah A. Miranda
  • Published 17 February 2010
  • Philosophy
  • GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies
Prior to contact with Europeans, California Indigenous peoples maintained a culture of three genders: male, female, and joya. Spanish missionaries and soldiers, however, viewed joyas as practicing "the execrable, unnatural abuse of their bodies" and reported that "we place our trust in God and expect that these accursed people will disappear with the growth of the missions. The abominable vice will be eliminated to the extent that the Catholic faith and all the other virtues are firmly… 

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