Extensive Cortical Rewiring after Brain Injury

@article{Dancause2005ExtensiveCR,
  title={Extensive Cortical Rewiring after Brain Injury},
  author={Numa Dancause and Scott Barbay and Shawn B. Frost and Erik J. Plautz and Daofen Chen and Elena V. Zoubina and Ann M. Stowe and Randolph J. Nudo},
  journal={The Journal of Neuroscience},
  year={2005},
  volume={25},
  pages={10167 - 10179}
}
Previously, we showed that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) underwent neurophysiological remodeling after injury to the primary motor cortex (M1). In the present study, we examined cortical connections of PMv after such lesions. The neuroanatomical tract tracer biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the PMv hand area at least 5 months after ischemic injury to the M1 hand area. Comparison of labeling patterns between experimental and control animals demonstrated extensive proliferation of… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Lesion Area in the Cerebral Cortex Determines the Patterns of Axon Rewiring of Motor and Sensory Corticospinal Tracts After Stroke

The present results reveal the basic principles that generate the patterns of CST rewiring, which depend on stroke location and CST subtype and indicate the importance of targeting different neural substrates to restore function among the types of injury.

Anatomical Plasticity of the Distal Forelimb Projection of the Ventral Premotor Cortex Four weeks After Primary Motor Cortex Injury

This present study is the first use rigorous stereological quantification to show that significant neuroplastic changes in the form of changes to neuroanatomical connections between distant cortical area occurs at a very early time point of 4 weeks post injury.

Rewiring the Brain

2 distinct patterns of reorganization are proposed that differentially engage ipsilesional and contralesional PMC: dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) premotor cortices as critical anatomical and physiological nodes within the neural networks for the control and learning of goal-oriented reach and grasp actions in healthy individuals and individuals with stroke.

Rapid and Bihemispheric Reorganization of Neuronal Activity in Premotor Cortex after Brain Injury

The results support that extensive, and much more complex than expected, neuronal reorganization takes place in spared areas of the bihemispheric cortical network involved in the control of hand movements, and offers potential targets for the development of neuromodulation protocols applied early after brain injury.

Task Related Neural Activity Following Primary Motor Cortical Ischemic Injury in Rats

The data suggest contralateral pre-motor and ipsilateral M1 alter their neural response profiles with respect to the timing of a motor task during recovery, the first demonstration of a compensatory single-spike neurophysiological mechanism that may explain how remote, spared cortical areas contribute to functional recovery after M1 injury.

Vicarious Function of Remote Cortex following Stroke: Recent Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

  • N. Dancause
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2006
The author reviews human and animal studies that show the plastic potential of the adult CNS after stroke, highlighting the vicarious role of the premotor cortex in the recovery of motor control.

Acute Cortical Transhemispheric Diaschisis after Unilateral Traumatic Brain Injury.

The hypothesis that the undamaged hemisphere could play a significant role in early functional reorganization processes after a TBI is supported, which may compensate and stabilize the disrupted brain functions.

Remodeling of the Axon Initial Segment After Focal Cortical and White Matter Stroke

Stroke alters the compartmental morphology of surviving adjacent neurons in peri-infarct cortex and in neurons whose distal axons are injured by white matter stroke, contributing to altered neuronal excitability after injury.

Multimodal Examination of Structural and Functional Remapping in the Mouse Photothrombotic Stroke Model

Findings show that the sensorimotor cortex undergoes remapping of cortical functions and axonal sprouting within the same regions during recovery after stroke, which suggests a linked structural and physiologic plasticity underlying recovery.

Role of the Contra-lesional Cortex in Recovery of Function After Traumatic Brain Injury

To determine how the cortical map is altered by injury and whether the contra-lesional cortex (CLCtx) is causally involved in recovery of function after unilateral TBI, fMRI and in vivo electrophysiology are used to chart the changes in the functional map throughout recovery from experimental TBI in the rat.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES

Reorganization of remote cortical regions after ischemic brain injury: a potential substrate for stroke recovery.

It is suggested that neurophysiologic reorganization of remote cortical areas occurs in response to cortical injury and that the greater the damage to reciprocal intracortical pathways, the great the plasticity in intact areas.

New Patterns of Intracortical Projections after Focal Cortical Stroke

The peri-infarct cortex is structurally abnormal, loses thalamic connections, and develops new horizontal cortical connections by axonal sprouting after focal strokes in rat whisker barrel cortex.

Axonal sprouting accompanies functional reorganization in adult cat striate cortex

It is reported here that structural changes in the form of axonal sprouting of long-range laterally projecting neurons accompany topographic remodelling of the visual cortex.

Anatomical and functional evidence for lesion‐specific sprouting of corticostriatal input in the adult rat

Striatal enkephalin mRNA levels were increased after a unilateral thermocoagulatory lesion, however, they were unchanged after aspiration or bilateral thermocogulatory lesions, suggesting that sprouting or overactivity of contralateral corticostriatal input contributes to the increase seen after unilateral therm Cocoagulatory lesions.

Ipsilateral connections of the ventral premotor cortex in a new world primate

The present study describes the pattern of connections of the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) with various cortical regions of the ipsilateral hemisphere in adult squirrel monkeys. Particularly, we 1)

Large-scale sprouting of cortical connections after peripheral injury in adult macaque monkeys.

The growth of intracortical but not thalamocortical connections could account for much of the reorganization of the sensory maps in cortex in macaque monkeys with long-standing, accidental trauma to a forelimb.

Neural Substrates for the Effects of Rehabilitative Training on Motor Recovery After Ischemic Infarct

The results suggest that, after local damage to the motor cortex, rehabilitative training can shape subsequent reorganization in the adjacent intact cortex, and that the undamaged motor cortex may play an important role in motor recovery.

Neocortical neural sprouting, synaptogenesis, and behavioral recovery after neocortical infarction in rats.

Data support the occurrence of neurite growth followed by synaptogenesis in the neocortex, ipsilateral and contralateral to neocortical ischemia, in a pattern that corresponds both spatially and temporally with behavioral recovery.

Large-scale cortical reorganization following forelimb deafferentation in rat does not involve plasticity of intracortical connections

It is suggested that subcortical sites may play a major role in large-scale cortical reorganization in adult rats following forelimb removal and postulated that the "new" shoulder representations in the FBS were relayed from the " original" shoulder representation.
...