# Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics

@article{Smolin2015ExtendingDT, title={Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics}, author={Lee Smolin}, journal={International Journal of Theoretical Physics}, year={2015}, volume={56}, pages={221-231} }

Dualities are often supposed to be foundational, but they may come into conflict with a strong form of background independence, which is the principle that the dynamical equations of a theory not depend on arbitrary, fixed, non-dynamical structures. This is because a hidden fixed structures is needed to define the duality transformation. Examples include a fixed, absolute notion of time, a fixed non-dynamical background geometry, or the metric of Hilbert space. We show that this conflict can be…

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