Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics

@article{Smolin2015ExtendingDT,
  title={Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics},
  author={Lee Smolin},
  journal={International Journal of Theoretical Physics},
  year={2015},
  volume={56},
  pages={221-231}
}
  • L. Smolin
  • Published 4 March 2015
  • Mathematics
  • International Journal of Theoretical Physics
Dualities are often supposed to be foundational, but they may come into conflict with a strong form of background independence, which is the principle that the dynamical equations of a theory not depend on arbitrary, fixed, non-dynamical structures. This is because a hidden fixed structures is needed to define the duality transformation. Examples include a fixed, absolute notion of time, a fixed non-dynamical background geometry, or the metric of Hilbert space. We show that this conflict can be… 
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