Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics

  title={Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics},
  author={Lee Smolin},
  journal={International Journal of Theoretical Physics},
  • L. Smolin
  • Published 4 March 2015
  • Mathematics
  • International Journal of Theoretical Physics
Dualities are often supposed to be foundational, but they may come into conflict with a strong form of background independence, which is the principle that the dynamical equations of a theory not depend on arbitrary, fixed, non-dynamical structures. This is because a hidden fixed structures is needed to define the duality transformation. Examples include a fixed, absolute notion of time, a fixed non-dynamical background geometry, or the metric of Hilbert space. We show that this conflict can be… 
1 Citations

Universal polarimetric signatures of the black hole photon ring

Black hole images present an annular region of enhanced brightness. In the absence of propagation effects, this "photon ring" has universal features that are completely governed by general relativity



Metastring theory and modular space-time

A bstractString theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of

A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization

We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk–bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial

M theory as a matrix extension of Chern–Simons theory

The cubic matrix model and a duality between strings and loops

We find evidence for a duality between the standard matrix formulations of M theory and a background independent theory which extends loop quantum gravity by replacing SU(2) with a supersymmetric and

Quantum theory from quantum gravity

We provide a mechanism by which, from a background-independent model with no quantum mechanics, quantum theory arises in the same limit in which spatial properties appear. Starting with an arbitrary

Matrix universality of gauge field and gravitational dynamics

A simple cubic matrix model is presented, which has truncations that, it is argued, lead at the classical level to a variety of theories of gauge fields and gravity. These include Chern-Simons theory

The Large-N Limit of Superconformal Field Theories and Supergravity

We show that the large-N limits of certainconformal field theories in various dimensions includein their Hilbert space a sector describing supergravityon the product of anti-de Sitter spacetimes,

The gravity/CFT correspondence

General Relativity can be formulated in terms of a spatially Weyl invariant gauge theory called Shape Dynamics. Using this formulation, we establish a “bulk/bulk” duality between gravity and a Weyl