The macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient bone marrow stromal cell line OP9, derived from osteopetrotic mice, is known to support hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion as well as hematopoietic differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Coculture of HSC in the OP9 system requires cytokine support to achieve significant cell expansion. Recently, we reported extensive expansion without cell senescence of cord blood (CB)-derived HSC cocultured with OP9 stromal cells for more than 18 weeks with a single cytokine support using human thrombopoietin (TPO). In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of the OP9/TPO coculture system to sustain long-term hematopoiesis of adult, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized human peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cells. Maximum cell expansion was attained during the first 4 weeks of coculture. At the same time, the maximum progenitor cell expansion was demonstrated by the production of colony-forming cells and cobblestone area-forming cells. In contrast to the expansion of CB CD34(+) cells, PB CD34(+) cells showed termination of cultures after 8 weeks, independent of the cell expansion rates attained. The evaluation of cell senescence by assessing the telomere length in most cultures showed no relevant telomere shortening, despite rapid decrease in telomerase activity. Interestingly, increases in telomere length were demonstrated. In conclusion, OP9/TPO system provides extensive stem cell expansion without concomitant telomere erosion for both CB and adult CD34(+) cells. Termination of adult CD34(+) cell cocultures seems to be independent of telomere length.