The vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) display reversible structural plasticity of neurons and glial cells under different conditions of neuropeptide secretion. In the present study, we investigated the expression of two immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins, Kilon and OBCAM, in the magnocellular neurons by using monoclonal antibodies. Anti-Kilon antibody reacted specifically with the bacterially expressed recombinant Kilon but not with the recombinant OBCAM, and similarly anti-OBCAM antibody specifically recognized the recombinant OBCAM. Western blotting analysis revealed the specific expression of Kilon and OBCAM in the SON homogenates. Although Kilon and OBCAM of the SON homogenates were present as the insoluble form, most Kilon was present in the Triton-insoluble fraction, and OBCAM was localized mainly in the Triton-soluble fraction. Immunocytochemistry revealed Kilon and OBCAM immunoreactivity in the magnocellular neurons of the SON and PVN of the rat hypothalamus compared with outside of the SON and PVN in the hypothalamus. The double-labeling study with confocal microscopy further demonstrated that Kilon immunoreactivity was observed mainly in the dendrites of AVP-secreting neurons and also occasionally OXT-secreting neurons. However, OBCAM immunoreactivity was exclusively seen in the dendrites of AVP-secreting magnocellular neurons. Chronic physiological stimulation by 2% NaCl had no effect on the expression levels of either IgLON protein in the SON. Our study thus demonstrated specific expression of Kilon and OBCAM in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons, particularly in dendrites, suggesting that they confer on magnocellular neurons the ability to rearrange dendritic connectivity.