Expression of somatic DNA repair genes in human testes

  title={Expression of somatic DNA repair genes in human testes},
  author={Danuta Galetzka and Eva Weis and Nicolai Kohlschmidt and Oliver Bitz and R Stein and Thomas Haaf},
  journal={Journal of Cellular Biochemistry},
Meiosis is the key process for recombination and reduction of the diploid chromosome set to a haploid one. Many genes that have been found in yeast or mouse models to play a role in meiosis are also important for the repair of DNA damage in somatic cells. To study the DNA repair gene transcriptome during male germ cell development, we have developed a specialized cDNA microarray with 181 human genes which are involved in different somatic DNA repair pathways and/or cell cycle control and 45… 

Meiosis as an Evolutionary Adaptation for DNA Repair

Evidence that meiosis is primarily an evolutionary adaptation for DNA repair is presented, including evidence that among microbial pathogens, sexual processes promote repair of DNA damage, especially when challenged by the oxidative defenses of their biologic hosts.

Evidence that hMLH3 functions primarily in meiosis and in hMSH2-hMSH3 mismatch repair

A role for hMLH3 in meiosis as well as hMSH2-hMSH3 repair processes and little if any role in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) is suggested.

Maize defective kernel mutant generated by insertion of a Ds element in a gene encoding a highly conserved TTI2 cochaperone

The newly engineered transposable element Dsg is used to tag a gene that gives rise to a defective kernel (dek) phenotype and creates alleles of the tagged gene that confirmed causation of the dek phenotype by the Dsg insertion.

DNA-damage response in tissue-specific and cancer stem cells.

Chapter 3 Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis

Accumulating evidence indicates that meiosis arose very early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and basic features of meiosis were likely already present in the prokaryotic ancestors of eUKaryotes.

Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis

Accumulating evidence indicates that meiosis arose very early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and basic features of meiosis were likely already present in the prokaryotic ancestors of eUKaryotes.

Somatic maintenance alters selection acting on mutation rate

This work proposes a theoretical model for how evolvability and germline mutation rates can be under positive selection in sexually reproducing organisms by their co-selection with adaptive alleles that overcomes gene segregation produced by genetic recombination.

Monte Carlo in silico experiments uncover a novel mechanism underlying the evolution of mutation rates in sexually reproducing populations

An expanded population genetics theory of the evolution of mutation rates in sexually reproducing populations is proposed and it is shown that MR evolution is significantly impacted by genetic drift; however, its primary source appears to be the amount of genetic variation present in the population under selection, with a lesser role for population size.

Somatic maintenance impacts the evolution of mutation rate

Evidence is presented from stochastic modeling that the direction and strength of selection acting on mutation rates is highly dependent on the evolution of somatic maintenance, and thus longevity, which modulates the cost of somatics mutations.

The human mutation rate is increasing, even as it slows.

It is proposed that the generation-time effect as it is usually understood cannot explain the observed rate variation, but instead that selection for decreased somatic mutation rates can be explained.



Expression of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair Enzymes During Spermatogenesis in Mice1

Patterns of expression for genes encoding mismatch repair enzymes are consistent with the proposed roles of the gene products in mismatch repair during both DNA replication and recombination.

Xrcc-1 expression during male meiosis in the mouse.

R reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction amplification results demonstrated that Xrcc-1 expression is most abundant in pachytene spermatocytes and round s permatids with low expression in Sertoli cells, types A and B sperMatogonia, preleptotene sper matocytes, and leptotenes plus zygotene sPermatocytes.

Human and mouse homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1(+) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD17: linkage to checkpoint control and mammalian meiosis.

The identification of human and mouse homologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA damage checkpoint control gene rad1(+) and its SacCharomyces cerevisiae homolog RAD17 suggest that these events are highly conserved from yeast to humans.

The evolution of meiosis: Recruitment and modification of somatic DNA‐repair proteins

  • E. MarconP. Moens
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2005
Several DNA‐damage detection and repair mechanisms have evolved to repair double‐strand breaks induced by mutagens, resulting in adaptations specific to sexual reproduction.

Impaired meiotic DNA-damage repair and lack of crossing-over during spermatogenesis in BRCA1 full-length isoform deficient mice

The study revealed an essential role of Brca1 in DNA-damage repair and crossing-over of homologous chromosomes during spermatogenesis, which was accompanied by increased apoptosis by both p53-dependent and p 53-independent mechanisms.

Human DNA repair genes, 2005.

Expression of DNMT3A transcripts and nucleolar localization of DNMT3A protein in human testicular and fibroblast cells suggest a role for de novo DNA methylation in nucleolar inactivation

A role for de novo DNA methylation in nucleolar inactivation is suggested in nucle polar inactivation of male male germ cells and serum starvation of human fibroblasts.

BRCA2 deficiency in mice leads to meiotic impairment and infertility

Evidence is provided for key roles of the BRCA2 protein in mammalian gametogenesis and meiotic success in knockout mice and some mutant oocytes can progress through meiotic prophase I, albeit with a high frequency of nuclear abnormalities, and can be fertilized and produce embryos.

p21WAF1 expression during spermatogenesis of the normal and X-irradiated rat.

It appears that X-irradiation induces p21WAF1 in the pachytene spermatocytes in normal testis, the protein may take part in the regulation of meiosis and in the 'terminal' differentiation of the male germ cells.

Homologous recombinational repair proteins in mouse meiosis

Focusing on the mouse as a model organism, what is known about the conserved roles of these proteins in vertebrate somatic cells and in mammalian meiosis is considered, including such information as gene expression in gonadal tissue, protein localization patterns on chromosomal cores in meiocyte nuclei, and information gleaned from mouse models.