Glycoalkaloids and acclimation capacity of hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and the incongruent hardy species Solanum commersonii
The expression of freezing tolerance was characterized in interspecific somatic hybrids between S. tuberosum (tbr) and two cold-hardy wild species, S. brevidens (brd) and S. commersonii (cmm). The nonacclimated freezing tolerance (NA) and acclimation capacity (ACC, increase in freezing tolerance in response to low nonfreezing temperature), two main genetic components of freezing tolerance, were evaluated separately. In contrast to cmm, which exhibited excellent NA and ACC, the freezing tolerance of brd was mainly due to ACC. However, the ACC of brd was only moderately expressed in the somatic hybrids. The NA of cmm was also suppressed in combination with tbr genomes. However, with acclimation, some of the tbr (+) cmm somatic hybrids achieved freezing tolerance comparable to pure hardy species such as brd used in this study. Analysis of chloroplast DNA type by RFLP markers revealed no significant difference in ACC between somatic hybrids carrying chloroplasts from either tbr or cmm. The reasons for the reduced expression of freezing tolerance from either the brd or cmm parent and the utilization of these somatic hybrids in breeding programs are discussed.