Expression of functional Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in human aortic valve interstitial cells: potential roles in aortic valve inflammation and stenosis.


Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common indication for surgical valve replacement. Inflammation appears to be one of the mechanisms involved in aortic valve calcification, and valve interstitial cells seem to contribute to that process. Although Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the cellular inflammatory response, it is unknown… (More)

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