Incorporation of functionalized gold nanoparticles into nanofibers for enhanced attachment and differentiation of mammalian cells
It has been well documented that the extracellular matrix components fibronectin and laminin promote or regulate morphogenesis of the myocardial cells in mammalian heart. However, their chronological change of expression (or localization) in the human heart remains elusive. In this study, fibronectin and laminin in the left ventricle of forty-two human fetuses aged from 8 to 26 weeks gestation and left ventricular tissues obtained from a 2-week old infant and two adults were investigated by Western blot analyses and indirect immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies. In the fetal heart, fibronectins were present along the endocardium, epicardium, and linings of larger blood vessels. In 14-16 weeks gestation, fibronectin immunofluorescence became stronger but not evenly dispersed in the interstitium. After 24 weeks gestation, they were strongly positive only in the relatively larger blood vessels, as well as those in the infant and adult cardiac tissues. Laminins were strongly positive along the endocardium and basement membrane of the myocardial cells and fibroblasts during fetal life. After birth, laminins formed fine fibrillar network along the basement membrane in association with the transverse tubules of myocardial cell; these morphological characteristics remained in the adult cardiac tissues. These results indicate that fibronectin expression is relatively constant during fetal life but decreases after birth; in contrast, laminin expression is not age-dependent and constant throughout the life.