Simple sugars to complex disease--mucin-type O-glycans in cancer.
Mucin glycoproteins are major secretory products of the colon and contain O-linked oligosaccharides synthesized on a polypeptide backbone. The initial step in the synthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides is the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine to serine or threonine residues forming the Tn antigen. This substance can then receive additional carbohydrate residues such as sialic acid to form sialosyl-Tn antigen, or galactose to form T antigen. In the colon, the T antigen is an oncodevelopmental cancer-associated antigen but little is known about Tn and sialosyl-Tn expression. The present comparative immunohistochemical study was performed to analyze the expression of these antigens in fetal, normal adult, and malignant colorectal tissues with an aim toward elucidating whether Tn and sialosyl-Tn are also oncodevelopmental colon cancer-associated antigens and to gain insight into the earliest steps of mucin glycosylation in colonocytes. We used three reagents to detect Tn antigen (two monoclonal antibodies ETn1.01 and CU-1, and one lectin Vicia villosa), two reagents to detect sialosyl-Tn (monoclonal antibodies TKH2 and B72.3) and one to detect T antigen (monoclonal antibody AH9-16). Except for occasional reactivity with VVA and CU-1, cells of normal colonic mucosa did not express Tn, sialosyl-Tn, or T antigens. However, in the transitional mucosa immediately adjacent to cancer, all three antigens were expressed (ranging from 35 to 67% of cases depending upon the reagent). In colon cancers, the percentage of cases expressing each antigen were as follows: Tn 72-81%, sialosyl-Tn 93-96%, and T 71%. Unlike T antigen, which was preferentially expressed by moderately well- and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, both Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens were expressed by most histological subsets of colon cancers, including poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and mucinous (colloid and signet ring cell type) carcinomas. The majority of cancers expressed both Tn and sialosyl-Tn, usually in association with T antigen. Only one cancer lacked all three antigens. Fetal colonic mucosal cells expressed all three antigens, particularly in goblet cell mucin. These results indicate that like T antigen, Tn and sialosyl-Tn are oncodevelopmental cancer-associated antigens in the colon. Moreover, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens appear to be useful markers of poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and mucinous carcinomas: two histological subsets that often fail to express other cancer-associated antigens and that are often associated with a poor clinical outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)