To assess the relationship between expression of STK15 gene and chromosomal instability in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, RNA was extracted from 50 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and paired normal tissue and Hep-2 cell line. cDNA was synthesized through reverse transcription, which was amplified by PCR using beta-actin as contrast. The results of electrophoresis were analysed by software to examine the expression level of STK15 gene in laryngeal carcinoma; karyotype analysis of Hep-2 cell line as an example was performed by routine and high-resolution G-banding techniques. In the 50 cases of laryngeal carcinoma, there were 34 cases whose expression of STK15 gene in tumor was higher than paired normal tissue, occupying 68%. The difference between tumor group and contrast group was prominent by statistic analysis. The expression of STK15 gene in Hep-2 cell line was higher than that of beta-actin; Chromosomal instability in Hep-2 cell line was evident: The chromosomal number range from 43 to 84 and the chromosomal model ranged from 69 to 74. The structural abnormality was represented by 13 marker chromosomes. We discovered the overexpression of STK15 gene in laryngeal carcinoma the first time. It may caused chromosomal instability through abnormal centrosome, therefore having some effect during the occurrence and development of laryngeal carcinoma.