Expression of Neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF Family-Receptor mRNA in the Developing and Mature Mouse

@article{Golden1999ExpressionON,
  title={Expression of Neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF Family-Receptor mRNA in the Developing and Mature Mouse},
  author={Judith P Golden and Joseph A. Demaro and Patricia A. Osborne and Jeffrey D. Milbrandt and Eugene M. Johnson},
  journal={Experimental Neurology},
  year={1999},
  volume={158},
  pages={504-528}
}
The GDNF family of neurotrophic factors currently has four members: neurturin (NRTN), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), persephin, and artemin. These proteins are potent survival factors for several populations of central and peripheral neurons. The receptors for these factors are complexes that include the Ret tyrosine kinase receptor and a GPI-linked, ligand-binding component called GDNF family receptor alpha 1-4 (GFRalpha1-4). We have used in situ hybridization to study the… 

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TLDR
The pattern of GF factor and receptor expression in the adult brain suggests a role for these factors in maintaining neuronal circuits in the mature CNS.

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There are multiple mechanisms regulating the interaction between Ret and the α-receptors that mediates the effects of GDNF family trophic factors on the survival and differentiation of cells and on neuron–target interactions in the nervous system.

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A third member of the GF coreceptor family called GFRα3 that is encoded by a gene located on human chromosome 5q31.2–32 is described, which is not expressed in the central nervous system of the developing or adult animal but is highly expressed in several developing and adult sensory and sympathetic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system.

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The cloning of a new GPI-linked receptor termed NTNR-α that is homologous with GDNFR-α and is widely expressed in the nervous system and other tissues is reported, indicating that GDNF and neurturin promote neuronal survival by signalling through similar multicomponent receptors that consist of a common receptor tyrosine kinase and a member of a GPI family of receptors that determines ligand specificity.

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TLDR
It is demonstrated that physiological responses to GDNF require the presence of a novel glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein (designated GDNFR-α) that is expressed on GDNF-responsive cells and binds GDNF with a high affinity, which supports the hypothesis that GDNF uses a multi-subunit receptor system in which GDN FR-α and Ret function as the ligand-binding and signalling components.

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TLDR
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