Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease

@article{Pezzoli2013ExposureTP,
  title={Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease},
  author={Gianni Pezzoli and Emanuele Cereda},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={2013},
  volume={80},
  pages={2035 - 2041}
}
Objective: To investigate the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with exposure to pesticides and solvents using meta-analyses of data from cohort and case-control studies. Methods: Prospective cohort and case-control studies providing risk and precision estimates relating PD to exposure to pesticides or solvents or to proxies of exposure were considered eligible. The heterogeneity in risk estimates associated with objective study quality was also investigated. Results: A total of 104… 
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More studies are needed to further analyze this topic with longer follow-up periods, more detailed exposure information, and more specific causes of mortality.
Exposure to Pesticides and Welding Hastens the Age-at-Onset of Parkinson’s Disease
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Exposure to pesticides and toxic metals were both associated with an earlier onset of PD, an effect that was greater with higher levels of exposure, both in terms of frequency and proximity.
Occupational exposure to solvents, metals and welding fumes and risk of Parkinson's disease.
Paths from Pesticides to Parkinson's
TLDR
High-quality studies of specific chemical pesticides are needed to determine the relationship between exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease, and information is needed on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that, over time, lead from pesticide exposure to neurodegeneration and ultimately to PD.
PBPK/PD assessment for Parkinson’s disease risk posed by airborne pesticide paraquat exposure
TLDR
A novel, probabilistic population-based exposure-response approach to quantify the contribution from PQ exposure to prevalence risk of PD and suggests that a mechanistic understanding of the contribution of a specific pesticide exposure to PD risk trends is crucial to enhance insights into the perspective on the impacts of environmental exposure on the neurodegenerative diseases.
Pesticide use in agriculture and Parkinson's disease in the AGRICAN cohort study.
TLDR
The work suggests that the risk of PD is increased in farmers exposed to pesticides on several French crops and livestock, and supports additional evidence of an association of PD with dithiocarbamate fungicides, rotenone and the herbicides diquat and paraquat.
Genetic and Environmental Factors Contributing to Parkinson's Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Cypriot Population
TLDR
This case-control study has shed some light on the nature of PD epidemiology in Cyprus, by demonstrating a number of genetic and environmental determinants of PD in the Cypriot population.
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References

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TLDR
Evidence is affirms that exposure to herbicides and insecticides increase the risk of PD and future studies should focus on more objective and improved methods of pesticide exposure assessment.
A meta-analysis of Parkinson's disease and exposure to pesticides.
TLDR
Although the risk of PD increased with increased duration of exposure to pesticides, no significant dose-response relation was established, and no specific type of pesticide was identified.
Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis.
TLDR
It is suggested that living in a rural area, drinking well water, farming, and exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for developing PD.
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TLDR
The hypothesis that the occupational use of herbicides is associated with an increased risk for Parkinson's disease is supported.
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TLDR
Exposure to well water might be a factor associated with the likelihood of developing Parkinson's disease, though only prolonged exposures of 30 years or longer were significantly different between PD and controls, and past exposure to pesticides did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing PD.
Pesticide exposure and self-reported Parkinson's disease in the agricultural health study.
TLDR
It is suggested that exposure to certain pesticides may increase PD risk, and findings for specific chemicals may provide fruitful leads for further investigation.
Plantation work and risk of Parkinson disease in a population-based longitudinal study.
TLDR
These longitudinal observations regarding plantation work in Hawaii support case-control studies suggesting that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of PD.
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TLDR
The findings reported here are provocative and must be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of subjects included in the study, but smoking showed an inverse relationship with PD.
Parkinson's disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents, agricultural chemicals and mercury--a case-referent study.
TLDR
The hypothesis that occupational exposure to organic solvents in general increases the risk of Parkinson's disease is not supported, but the confidence intervals of the odds ratios do not rule out such possibilities.
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