Exposure to low levels of photosynthetically active radiation induces rapid increases in palisade cell chloroplast volume and thylakoid surface area in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Abstract

Sudden changes in photoactive radiation (PAR) (wavelength, 400–700 nm) induces rapid surface area changes in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Although this response may have important photo-acclimative functions for the plant, little is known about the mechanisms by which changes in irradiance are detected or how thylakoid membranes actually increase or decrease surface area. Knowledge of the time required for significant changes in thylakoid area would help eliminate or support several possible mechanisms that may be involved in this aspect of photo-acclimation in plants. Leaf tissues were acclimated to a PAR of 500 μmol quanta per m2 per s then exposed to low irradiance (PAR, 50 μmol quanta per m2 per s) and sampled at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post exposure. Tissue and cell structure were quantified and results showed a significant increase in the surface-to-volume ratio and surface area per unit of standard leaf volume for both appressed and nonappressed thylakoids within 5 min of exposure to low irradiance. On the basis of the ratios of appressed to nonappressed thylakoids, the surface area of the nonappressed thylakoids was found to increase faster than that of the appressed thylakoids throughout the sample period. The portion of the appressed thylakoids in contact with the stroma was defined as margin thylakoids. Margin thylakoid surface-to-volume ratio did not change relative to the high-irradiance control during the sample period but did remain significantly lower than the low-irradiance control during the sample period. The ratio of appressed to margin thylakoids indicated a broadening and shortening of the appressed thylakoid stack within the first 5 min of low-irradiance exposure. The rapidity of the shade response indicates that the early events in this response probably do not directly involve gene activation pathways.

DOI: 10.1007/BF01279345

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@article{Wheeler2005ExposureTL, title={Exposure to low levels of photosynthetically active radiation induces rapid increases in palisade cell chloroplast volume and thylakoid surface area in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)}, author={William Wheeler and Wayne R. Fagerberg}, journal={Protoplasma}, year={2005}, volume={212}, pages={38-45} }