Exposing Photo Manipulation from Shading and Shadows

@article{Kee2014ExposingPM,
  title={Exposing Photo Manipulation from Shading and Shadows},
  author={Eric Kee and James F. O'Brien and Hany Farid},
  journal={ACM Trans. Graph.},
  year={2014},
  volume={33},
  pages={165:1-165:21}
}
We describe a method for detecting physical inconsistencies in lighting from the shading and shadows in an image. This method imposes a multitude of shading- and shadow-based constraints on the projected location of a distant point light source. The consistency of a collection of such constraints is posed as a linear programming problem. A feasible solution indicates that the combination of shading and shadows is physically consistent, while a failure to find a solution provides evidence of… CONTINUE READING